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The Early Christian Principalities and
Origins of the Kingdom ofAsturias 32 Formation of the Pyrenean
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administration affairs Al-Andalus Alfonso Alfonso XI Almoravid Aragon Aragonese Aragonese empire aristocracy Asturias Barcelona Basque became Carlos Castile Castile-Leon Castilian Catalan Catalan counties Catalonia Catholic Christian church commerce conquest Conversos Cortes crusading culture decades decline developed districts domination early economic eleventh century emirate empire Enrique Espaņa established European expansion Fernando fifteenth forces fourteenth century France French Galicia Granada Habsburg Hispania Hispanic Hispano-Christian Hispano-Muslim imperial important income increased Inquisition Joao Juan king kingdom land Leon Leonese Lisbon Madrid major medieval Mediterranean Middle Ages military monarchy Moriscos Morocco Mozarab Muslim Navarre nobility northern overlords papacy peasants Pedro peninsula percent political population Portugal Portuguese principalities reconquest reform region religious revolt Roman royal ruler Sancho seigneurial seventeenth century Seville sixteenth century social society southern Spain Spanish crown taifas taxes tenth century territory thalassocracy thirteenth century tion towns trade twelfth century urban Valencia Visigothic vols wealth western Europe