## The Grammar of GraphicsPreface to First Edition Before writing the graphics for SYSTAT in the 1980’s, I began by teaching a seminar in statistical graphics and collecting as many different quantitative graphics as I could find. I was determined to produce a package that could draw every statistical graphic I had ever seen. The structure of the program was a collection of procedures named after the basic graph types they p- duced. The graphics code was roughly one and a half megabytes in size. In the early 1990’s, I redesigned the SYSTAT graphics package using - ject-based technology. I intended to produce a more comprehensive and - namic package. I accomplished this by embedding graphical elements in a tree structure. Rendering graphics was done by walking the tree and editing worked by adding and deleting nodes. The code size fell to under a megabyte. In the late 1990’s, I collaborated with Dan Rope at the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Dan Carr at George Mason University to produce a graphics p- duction library called GPL, this time in Java. Our goal was to develop graphics components. This book was nourished by that project. So far, the GPL code size is under half a megabyte. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

11 Graphics Versus Charts | 2 |

12 ObjectOriented Design | 3 |

13 An ObjectOriented Graphics System | 6 |

14 An Example | 8 |

15 What This Book Is Not | 13 |

16 Background | 18 |

Part 1 | 21 |

107 Summary | 316 |

108 Sequel | 318 |

Facets | 319 |

112 Algebra of Facets | 320 |

113 Examples | 327 |

114 Sequel | 345 |

Guides | 347 |

121 Scale Guides | 348 |

How To Make a Pie | 23 |

21 Definitions | 25 |

22 Recipe | 31 |

23 Notation | 38 |

24 Sequel | 40 |

Data | 41 |

31 Data Functions | 42 |

32 Empirical Data | 44 |

33 Abstract Data | 48 |

34 Metadata | 51 |

36 Sequel | 54 |

Variables | 55 |

41 Transforms | 56 |

42 Examples | 57 |

43 Sequel | 61 |

Algebra | 63 |

52 Examples | 73 |

53 Other Algebras | 80 |

54 Sequel | 83 |

Scales | 85 |

62 Scale Transformations | 93 |

63 Sequel | 109 |

Statistics | 111 |

71 Methods | 113 |

72 Examples | 123 |

73 Summary | 152 |

74 Sequel | 154 |

Geometry | 155 |

81 Examples | 158 |

82 Summary | 177 |

83 Sequel | 178 |

Coordinates | 179 |

91 Transformations of the Plane | 180 |

92 Projections onto the Plane | 227 |

93 3D Coordinate Systems | 244 |

94 HighDimensional Spaces | 248 |

95 Tools and Coordinates | 253 |

96 Sequel | 254 |

Aesthetics | 255 |

101 Continuous Scales | 256 |

102 Categorical Scales | 261 |

103 Dimensions | 265 |

104 Realism | 270 |

105 Aesthetic Attributes | 274 |

106 Examples | 293 |

122 Annotation Guides | 352 |

123 Sequel | 356 |

Semantics | 357 |

Space | 359 |

131 Mathematical Space | 363 |

132 Psychological Space | 378 |

133 Graphing Space | 381 |

134 Sequel | 405 |

Time | 407 |

141 Mathematics of Time | 408 |

142 Psychology of Time | 424 |

143 Graphing Time | 427 |

144 Sequel | 449 |

Uncertainty | 451 |

752 Psychology of Uncertainty | 466 |

153 Graphing Uncertainty | 468 |

154 Sequel | 488 |

Analysis | 489 |

161 Variance Analysis | 490 |

162 Shape Analysis | 496 |

163 Graph Drawing | 500 |

164 Sequence Analysis | 505 |

165 Pattern Analysis | 517 |

166 Sequel | 533 |

Control | 535 |

772 Exploring | 552 |

173 Sequel | 577 |

Automation | 579 |

181 Graphics Production Language | 580 |

182 Visualization Markup Language | 589 |

183 Summary | 608 |

184 Sequel | 609 |

Reader | 611 |

191 The Problem | 612 |

192 A Psychological Reader Model | 614 |

193 A Graphics Grammar Reader Model | 617 |

194 Research | 622 |

Coda | 623 |

202 Monarch Butterfly Migration | 629 |

203 Conclusion | 632 |

204 Sequel | 634 |

635 | |

673 | |

681 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

algebra algorithm applications axes axis bar chart blend box plot categorical categorical variable Chapter cluster color column components contours COORD correlation dataset defined density dimension display distance distribution domain dot plot edges ELEMENT Euclidean Euclidean space facet Figure frame frequentist geometric glyph grammar graphics system graphing function GUIDE histogram horizontal interval kernel label layout linear matrix measure methods metric metric space minimum spanning tree multidimensional scaling nested nodes objects operations panel parallel coordinates parameter path pattern perception permutation plane points polar polar coordinates polygon position problem produce projection random rectangular regression relation rendering represent rotation sample scale scatterplot Section sequence shape shows an example similar smooth smoother space specification statistical graphics structure subset SYSTAT Table tick marks tion TRANS transformation tree treemap Tukey tuples variable varset vectors vertical visual ViZml Voronoi tessellation zero