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Whilst she uttered these words, the leaf dropped from her hands, and she remained speechless and without a breath. The note was an order from Augustus Joseph II., in which he assigned from his own private treasury a generous assisttance. The doctor arrived opportunely to recover the mother from the swoon into which the surprise had

thrown her. The remedies applied soon recovered her from the sickness which drew its principal cause from the afflictions of her mind. The generous monarch, loaded with praises and benedictions, had the pleasure of restoring health and life, and of forming the happiness of an honest family, harshly persecuted by fortune.

RELIGIOUS LIBERTY.

THE noble-minded David Simpson, of Macclesfield, author of the "Plea for Religion," &c., once heard Alexander Kilham speak in the open air in the above town. This occurred shortly after Kilham was expelled the Wesleyan body for his advocacy of religious liberty. Having heard Mr. Kilham state his views of church government, Mr. Simpson remarked to the effect, that however men might revile Mr. Kilham, no one could overturn the principles he maintained, if they were such as he had heard from him that day.

On the subject of religious liberty Mr. Simpson expresses the following noble sentiments.

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For much more than a thousand years the Christian world was a stranger to religious liberty. Even toleration was unknown till about a century ago. The clergy, especially, have usually been unfriendly to religious liberty. When the Act of Toleration was obtained in King William's time, great numbers of them were much against it. It appears to me, however, that both the name and the thing are inconsistent with the very nature of the Gospel of Christ. For have I not as much right to control you in your religious concerns as you have to control me? To talk of tolerating, implies an authority over me. Yet who but Christ has any such authority over me? He is a tyrant, a very pope, who pretends to any such thing. These matters will be better understood by and by. The whole Christian world lay in darkness upon this subject, we have observed, for many ages. Dr. Owen is the first I am acquainted with who wrote in favour of it, in

the year 1648. Milton followed him, about the year 1658, in his "Treatise of the Civil Power of Ecclesiastical Causes." And the immortal Locke followed them both with his golden "Treatise on Toleration," in 1689. But notwithstanding these and many other works which have since been written on the same subject, much still remains to be done in this country. Locke's book has not yet been generally read and understood. Though we have had the honour of being among the first of the nations which obtained a large portion of civil and religious freedom, others are now taking the lead of us on the rights of conscience. And it does not appear to many that we ever can be a thoroughly united and happy people, till every good subject enjoys equal civil privileges, without any regard to religious sects and opinions. If a man be a peaceable, industrious, moral, and religious person, and an obedient subject to the civil government under which he lives, let his religious views be what they may, he seems to have a just claim to the enjoyment of every office, privilege, and emolument of that Government. And till this is in fact the case, I apprehend there never can be a settled state of things. There will be an eternal enmity between the governing and the governed; an everlasting struggle for superiority. But when every member of society enjoys equal privileges with his fellow members, the bone of contention is removed, and there is nothing for which they should any longer be at enmity. Equal and impartial liberty, equal privileges and emoluments, are, or should be, the birthright of every

member of civil society; and would be the glory of any Government to bestow upon all its serious, religious, and moral-acting citizens, without any regard to the sect and party to which they belong. Talents and in

tegrity alone should be the sine qua non to recommend any man to the notice of people in power. This, it should seem, would make us an united and happy people."-Simpson's Plea for Religion.

WHAT CAN I DO?

A PERSON in humble life, residing in a large town, for many years obtained his livelihood by traversing on foot the villages within some miles' distance, going each day in a direction regularly planned, selling smallwares and various articles according to the season of the year. By his own desire he was supplied with from fifty to a hundred sets of loan tracts for each day's circulation; these he left regularly at the houses he visited, collecting them again on that day fortnight. The sets left in each district contained the same tracts; and, beginning on the second Monday with a spare set, those collected were left in the next district, two districts being visited each day; thus a supply of thirteen parcels lasted for nearly half a year. But in that time many had to be renewed, for any person wishing to retain the tracts left might do so on paying a penny, and a considerable number availed themselves of this opportunity for obtaining the words of gospel truth, often having them bound up when enough to form a small volume. It is to be noted that the tracts thus chosen and purchased by the cottagers, were usually those which would be called of a grave character, a fact highly creditable to our village population. They felt, indeed, that the tracts were calculated to benefit their never-dying souls; and thus devoted servants to Christ, long since

departed-the venerable George Burder, for instance--though now in glory, is still preaching by his Village Sermons on earth, to many hundreds in this one district by this simple means of usefulness. Papists represent the saints in heaven as listening to the prayers of mortals on earth; but surely we may believe, if they do now take an interest in what passes below, that they would rather delight in knowing that their writings are thus preaching the Lord Jesus Christ, and the way of salvation through faith in him as a crucified Saviour. Nor was the above a mere transitory effort: the writer knows that it continued regularly, without suspension, excepting at harvest, and once or twice for a short time from illness, for more than twelve years. He could, and would add much more on the subject, but then he believes the work is still in progress; and it is best, therefore, only to say, that there is good evidence that it has been blessed among those who thus took the word of truth into their houses.

May not this simple account induce some readers to engage in like efforts in their own neighbourhood? The system can be varied, and accommodated to any existing circumstances. And remember the word, "Let us work while it is called to day, for the night cometh when no man can work."

SUMMARY OF LONDON.

LONDON is the largest and richest city in the world. In 1841 it contained a population of 1,813,676, of which 876,956 were males, and 936,720 were females; the number is now upwards of 2,000,000. The number of houses is upwards of 288,000, the rental of which is about

£8,800,000. Number of squares, streets, lanes, courts, alleys, &c., each with a distinct name, about 15,000. London extends a length of about eight miles, by a breadth of about seven miles, including an extent computed at 35 square miles. Within the last 50 years London has more

than doubled in extent, and at present is rapidly increasing on all sides. Upwards of 25,000 vessels arrive and depart annually: there are on an average 5,000 vessels and 4,000 boats on the river Thames, employing 8,000 watermen and 4,000 labourers.

London contains 10 docks, 8 bridges, 1 tunnel, 8 water companies, 8 railway stations, 7 cemetery companies, parks, 340 churches and chapels, 370 dissenting chapels, 22 foreign chapels, 250 public schools, 550 public offices, 14 prisons, 8 police offices, 22 theatres, 50 markets, 380 hotels, 4,900 public-houses, 500 beershops, and 2,900 coffee-shops.

Employs 16,510 shoemakers, 14,560 tailors, 13,210 carpenters, 6,830 bricklayers, 2,320 plumbers, 5,040 house painters, 2,670 hatters and hosiers, 2,640 watch and clock makers, 1,180 old clothesmen (principally Jews), 5,420 cabinet makers, 1,090

chemists, 2,140 coopers, 1,380 dyers, 870 saddlers, 1,040 brokers, 3,000 compositors, 700 pressmen, 1,010 wheelwrights, 2,100 hair-dressers, 910 pastrycooks, 4,330 butchers, 1,590 cheesemongers, 1,088 fishmongers, 1,090 tobacconists, 2,170 coachmakers, 5,660 bakers, 4,640 grocers, 4,200 drapers, 1,450 milkmen, 2,810 jewellers, 4,600 coach and omnibus drivers, 1,670 cab drivers, and 1,800 omnibus conductors.

Annual consumption: 190,000 bullocks, 776,000 sheep, 250,000 lambs, 250,000 calves, 270,000 pigs, 120,000 tons of fish, 11,000 tons of butter, 13,000 tons of cheese, 12,000,000 quarters of wheat, besides vast quantities of flour imported ; 10,000,000 gallons of milk, 65,000 pipes of wine, 2,000,000 gallons of spirits, 2,000,000 barrels of ale and porter, 3,000,000 tons of coals.

HYMN OF THE UNIVERSE.

PARAPHRASED FROM GOETHE.

ROLL on, thou Sun! for ever roll,
Thou giant rushing through the heaven,
Creation's wonder, nature's soul!

Thy golden wheels by angels driven;
The planets die without thy blaze,

And cherubim, with star-dropt wing,
Float in thy diamond-sparkling rays,
Thou brightest emblem of their King.
Roll, lovely Earth! and still roll on,
With ocean's azure beauty bound;
While one sweet star, the pearly moon,
Pursues thee through the blue profound;
And angels, with delighted eyes,

Behold thy tints of mount and stream,
From the high walls of paradise--
Swift-whirling like a glorious dream.
Roll, Planets! on your dazzling road,
For ever sweeping round the sun;
What eye beheld when first ye glow'd-
What eye shall see your courses done?
Roll in your solemn majesty,

Ye deathless splendours of the skies!
High altars, from which angels see
The incense of creation rise.

Roll, Comets! and ye million Stars!

Ye that through boundless nature roam;
Ye monarchs on your flame-wing'd cars!
Tell us in what more glorious dome,
What orb, to which your pomps are dim,
What kingdom but by angels trod-
Tell us where swells the eternal hymn

Around His throne-where dwells your God?

HAVALI.

NOTICES OF BOOKS.

THE GREAT REDEMPTION: an Essay on the Mediatorial System. By WILLIAM LEASK. Pp. 346. London: B. L. Green.

There is much that is excellent in this volume. The style is clear, and often beautiful; the theology is evangelical, of the modern Calvinistic school, and free from all the dark and terrific shadows of the Genevan doctor. Redemption is contemplated not only as a system of human recovery, but as a sublime manifestation of the moral perfections of the Deity, and is viewed in its various and extensive relations, not only to the inhabitants of our planet, but the whole intelligent universe, and to the interests of eternity as well as time. The plan of the worthy author, and its execution, indicate, we think, that he has profited by the masterly thoughts of Dr. Harris, in his "Pre-Adamite Earth." As the field is extensive, the notice on each topic is necessarily brief, and often partakes rather of the character of an elegant dissertation, than a profound and elaborate argument. In page 33, the Redeemer is said to be called Menna in the Jerusalem Targum. As no such term is ascribed to our Lord in the Targums, this, we think, must be a typographical error, for Memra.

We demur to Mr. Leask's definition and application of the sovereignty of God. He opposes sovereignty to justice, and makes it identical with goodness and mercy, or the right of bestowing blessings where no blessings are deserved; and asserts that, "If all men were holy, there would be no room for the exercise of sovereignty; for equity would require that all should be happy." We deem this representation defective and incorrect. Wisdom, equity, and holiness, and all the perfections of God are as much identified with sovereignty as love and mercy. What, indeed, is the sovereignty of God but his absolute supremacy over all his creatures, and his right to dispose of them as he pleases? But this right is not arbitrary, though absolute; nor is it guided and directed by mere mercy or compassion, but by wisdom, justice, holiness, and all Jehovah's moral perfections. In worlds where sin has never entered, if such there bo, his sovereignty, his absolute supremacy, his immutable right to govern and dispose of his creatures, is exercised equally, as it is in this fallen world. What has constituted that variety in the nature, the attributes, the stations,

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and the conditions of the holy beings constituting the celestial hierarchy, but the sovereignty of God? Yet these beings never sinned, and, consequently, are not under any dispensation of mercy.

In Section VII. Chap. viii. Mr. Leask advocates the Pre-millenial advent of our Lord, but as he does not attempt a scriptural proof of this doctrine, we pass over it, by merely observing that if the subject were deemed so important as to occupy a whole section in the pages of "the Great Redemption," it would not have been unfitting to give the reader a foundation for this theory.

While honesty compels us to offer these strictures, we are by the same principle compelled to acknowledge that the volume is, on the whole, a very respectable production; and calculated to afford both edification and instruction, especially to the intelligent youth of Congregational churches.

VOICES FROM THE GARDEN; or the Christian Language of Flowers. 12mo. pp. 38; stiff covers. London: Partridge and Oakey.

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We have read these poems with inexpressible delight. The comparisons, similitudes, and analogies are natural, appropriate, and expressive; the sentiments are pure, dignified, and Christian; and the poetry is of a superior order. There is here and there a simple negligence and rusticity in the verbiage, but there is the soul of poetry. never read a poetical work of the same size richer in sentiment, more fraught with solid thinking, or better adapted to convey sound instruction to the heart. If such be the Language of Flowers, as it undoubtedly is, then these fair daughters of the field and the garden were intended to improve man's heart, as well as to please the eye and regale the senses. Happy is he whose mind is so perfectly in harmony with nature and nature's God, that he can hear his Maker's voice, and read his Maker's will, in all the objects which meet his view.

SCRIPTURE NATURAL HISTORY. By the Rev. J. YOUNG, M.A. London: Thomas Dean and Son.

The objects here described are twentyfour in number. The author's observations on each are brief, but so far as they extend, they furnish information which will assist the juvenile reader of the sacred Scriptures.

OBITUARIES AND RECENT DEATHS.

MRS. MARY ANN JONES.

TIVIDALE, (DUDLEY CIRCUIT.) THE subject of this brief sketch was born at Smethwick, near Birmingham, June 10th, 1814. Her parents were honest and industrious, but not pious. They sent their children to the Sabbath school belonging to the Independent chapel in Smethwick, where our sister received those serious impressions which, though weakened for a time, were afterwards revived. Like too many, when she left the school she was led away by the folly and vanity of this world, a fact which shows how necessary it is for young people to cherish the gracious impressions which are made on their minds, and to be on their guard against losing them. On the 27th of June, 1831, our sister entered into the marriage state with Mr. John Jones, who has sustained a heavy loss in her removal, but who feels that the grace of God is sufficient for him. Shortly after her marriage, the teachers and friends of the school before mentioned held a tea party, to which they invited those who had been scholars in the school and had left. Our sister went, and was presented with a copy of the Rev. John Angell James' "Anxious Inquirer," the reading of which had a good effect on her mind. In November, 1834, her sister Lydia died, not having recovered from her confinement; and when, sixteen months after, her father departed this life she took to Lydia's orphan boy, who had been with her parents before, and brought him up as her own. the month of March, 1838, her brother Thomas received a fatal injury one Sabbath about midnight, on the Birmingham and Liverpool railway. accident occurred near Birmingham, and was caused by two engines coming in contact. The deceased, who was employed by the railway company, survived only till the following Tuesday. His death had a powerful influence on her mind, and led her to think about her own soul. About this time she began to attend the place in which our Tividale friends then worshipped. The word preached was made a blessing to her soul. She joined the society, and received her first ticket from the Rev. G. Goodall, who was then in the Circuit, and for whom she had a high regard. Having been urged by Mr. G. not to rest until she had obtained the

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witness of the Spirit, she continued to seek this great blessing till one Sabbath, when Mr. R. Dutton, of Oldbury, then a very useful local preacher, was appointed to preach at Tividale. The Lord gave him great power both in prayer and preaching; but still our sister did not obtain the blessing for which she sought while she remained in the room. On leaving, Mr. D. urged her to be fully decided. He explained the way of salvation to be "repentance toward God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ." After leaving him, she retired for prayer, and while she was engaged in that duty she with a broken and contrite heart was enabled to look to Christ, and to cast her soul by faith on her crucified Redeemer. She believed with the heart unto righteousness, and received the forgiveness of her sins. She felt that, being justified by faith, she had peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ. Her heart was filled with joy and gladness. "I have often," says her husband, "heard her refer to the time with delight." She was ardently attached to all the means of grace, especially the class meeting, which she found very profitable to her soul. In her deportment she was steady and consistent. To say that she was faultless would be tantamount to saying that she was more than human. She was naturally of a hasty turn of mind, but she always went with her faults and failings to the Lord, and sought for mercy and grace at his hands, and rested not till she found a sense of forgiving love. Till the last year of her life there was no probability of her having any family, though she had entreated the Lord in reference to this matter. He, however, at length heard her prayer. At this time the tongue of slander was employed against her, which was a great grief to her mind, but on her dying-bed she expressed her forgiveness of all those who had spoken against her and attempted to injure her character. On Tuesday, the 16th of January, 1849, she was taken ill, and after extreme pain and sufferings, she gave birth, on Friday, the 19th, to a fine girl, but still-born. To the great surprise of all who knew her sufferings she appeared to do well for several days, but, at her own request, on the following Friday, a second medical attendant was called in, who expressed his fears as to her recovery, apprehending that inflammation would probably take place.

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