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The Edentates, like the marsupials, are also represented by one genus only, Manis (the Pangolin), which the Oriental shares with the Ethiopian Region.

The Oriental further resembles the Ethiopian Region in the variety of its forms of Ungulates, although they are not

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nearly so abundant. Three genera of Antelopes, the Fourhomed Antelope (Tetraceros), the Black-buck (Antilope), the Nylghaie (Boselaphus), (see Fig. 24, p. 126), are peculiar to it, as is also a group of wild Oxen (Bibos), with three species—the Gayal (Fig. 25), the Gaur, and the Banting. But while the Rhinoceroses, the Wild Asses, the Elephants, and the Antelopes are common to both the Oriental and Ethiopian Region, the Oriental possesses in addition Deer.


Fig. 26.—The Binturong.
(Arctictis binturong.)

Wild Sheep, and Wild Goats. These three last-named groups have never established themselves in the Ethiopian Region, though a single goat (Capra walie) has penetrated as far as the highlands of Abyssinia. But representatives of all of them are found in the Palaearctic Region.

Among the Rodents of the Oriental Region the Squirrels are especially numerous, there being upwards of fifty species found within its limits, nearly all of which are arboreal in their habits.

Although there are no families of Carnivores peculiar to the Region, there is a considerable number of genera of Civets (Viverridm) not found elsewhere, such as the Paradoxures (Paradoxurus) the Binturong (Arctictis) (Fig. 26, p. 128), and the genera Prkmodon, Arctogale, and Hemigale. The Bears (Ursidm), too, which are quite unknown in Africa, are characteristic members of the Oriental Mammal-fauna.

Among the Insectivores we find two peculiar families. One of these has been formed for the reception of Galeo■pithecus, the so-called Kaguan, an animal of about the size of a small cat, with thin flaps of skin between the fore and hind limbs and tail, which enable it to make flying leaps from tree to tree (see Fig. 27, p. 130). The other family (Tupaiidm) contains two genera. One of these, Tupaia, with at least twelve species, is an abnormal Shrew with a curious external resemblance to the Squirrels, with which, however, it has no real connection. The other, Ptilocercus, is distinguished from Tupaia by its peculiar tail, which is provided at the end with a bilateral fringe of long hairs. Both these families are confined to the Malayan portion of the Oriental Region.

Bats are numerous in the Oriental Region, and many of the genera extend eastwards into the Austro-Malayan islands. Only four genera, each with a single species, are peculiar.


Finally, among the Primates there are three genera of Lemurs. Two of these (Nycticebus and Loris) are peculiar,

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but belong to the family Lemuridm, and have their nearest allies in Africa. The third (Tamiiix), which forms a family of itself, is practically confined to the Region, although it has slightly overstepped its boundaries, being said to occur in one of the smaller Austro-Malayan islands between Sumba and Timor. Besides the Lemurs, six genera of true Monkeys are found in the Oriental Region. Three of these, the Proboscis Monkey of Borneo (Nasalis), the Gibbons (Hylobates), and the Orangs of Sumatra and Borneo (Simia), are strictly endemic; while the other three, although highly characteristic of this Region, have extended their range slightly across its frontiers.

Summarizing these results, we shall find that the Oriental Region contains only two truly endemic and one quasi-endemic families out of a total of thirty-six which occur within its limits. These are the Qaleopithecidse (Flying Lemurs), Tupaiidm (Tree shrews), and Tarsiidm (Tarsiers).

The total number of genera found in the Region is 113, out of which 38 are peculiar; 11 extend their ranges slightly beyond the limits of the Region, and 64 are widely spread. On reducing these figures to an average, it will be found that the Oriental Region contains about 38 per cent, of peculiar genera, or, if the quasi-endemic genera be added, about 45 per cent. In either case, this shows a much lower percentage of peculiarities than has been shown to exist in the three Regions previously considered.

Section III.—Subdivision Of The Oriental Region

The Oriental Region, as regards its mammals, may be most conveniently divided into four Sub-regions (see Map, Plate V., p. 152). These are :—

1. The Indian Sub-region.—This comprises the whole

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