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and to the Indian Sub-region; the "Ethiopian," in the same way, are found alike in the Ethiopian Region and the Indian Sub-region. The "Palseogean" genera are those which are found in the Indian Sub-region and in more than one of the other three Regions of the Old World. Finally, the "Cosmopolitan" genera are those found in the New World as well as in the Old.


From this table it will be seen that the relations of the Indian Sub-region are about equally divided between the Palsearctic and Ethiopian Regions; the largest number of genera are registered as " Palaeogean," and most of these are common to the three Regions of the Old World. The relations of this Sub-region to the Australian Region are very slight; with the exception of Cants, it is only among the Bats that we find any common genera.

Section V.—The Burmo-chinese Sub-region

Owing to our imperfect knowledge of the fauna of the central part of China and of Tibet, it is impossible at present to draw up a complete list of the mammalian genera inhabiting this Sub-region, and it is consequently out of the question to lay down anything but a very uncertain boundary between this Sub-region and the neighbouring Palsearctic Region. It is probable, however, that even when Western China and Tibet have been thoroughly explored, it will still be difficult to trace an absolute frontier between the Palsearctic and Oriental Regions. As we already know, Northern China and Japan contain a considerable number of purely Oriental species. Even the Tiger, usually associated with tropical jungles, ranges through China into the valley of the Amoor and the island of Saghalien, where a most severe Arctic winter is met with. In the same way, two species of a typically Oriental genus of Monkeys are found in North-East Asia—one (Macacus speciosus) in Nipon, the largest of the Japanese group of islands; the other (Macacus tcheliensis) in the mountains north of Pekin.

On the other hand, a good many purely Palsearctic forms extend into Southern China. This is more especially the case among the birds, which have hitherto received a preponderating share of the attention of the naturalists and collectors in the Chinese Empire.

Passing over the Edentates, represented, as in the Indian Sub-region, by two species of Pangolin (Manis), we come to the Ungulates of the Burmo-Chinese Sub-region. Here we remark the disappearance of the Antelopes, and the great development of the Deer-family (CervicUe), of which no less than fifteen species are found in this Subregion. One of these (Elaphodus) is a curious little Deer with very small simple antlers and large canine teeth; it was first described by Milne-Edwards from Western Tibet, and subsequently a second species of the same genus was discovered in Southern China. Another small Deer, for which a separate genus (Hydropotes) has been rightly formed, has no trace of antlers at all, and in other respects differs much from the remaining members of the family. This form is entirely confined to Southern China. A third peculiar genus, belonging to the Bovidm, is the Takin (Budorcas). This ox-like Antelope is also found in Western Tibet, but extends its range southwards to the Mishmi country in the north of Assam. The Takin is one of the very few of the larger ruminants that has never been met with or shot by European sportsmen, and our knowledge of it is entirely derived from the natives.

The Burmo-Chinese, like the Malayan Sub-region, is the most frequented haunt of the Squirrel family (Sciuridm). No less than thirty-two species, referable to the genera Sciurus (the true Squirrel) and to Pteromys and Sciuropternts, the Flying Squirrels, are found here alone. The only Rodent supposed to be truly endemic is Hapalomys, a long-tailed Rat found in Burma.

The Burmo-Chinese Carnivores do not call for any special remark; one genus alone (Helictis) is strictly endemic. It contains three or four species of small badger-like animals with arboreal habits.

Among the insectivores of this Sub-region only one genus is endemic. This is Soriculus, containing some small shrew-like mammals found only in Sikkim and Assam. Several species of Mole (Talpa), as also Anurosore<c, and Chimarrhogale, belonging to the Shrew family (Soricidm), extend from the Palaearctic Region into this Sub-region, but no farther.

The Bats of Burmo-China need not detain us long; most of the genera are widely spread, and a very large number of them extend across Wallace's line into the Austro-Malayan islands—a distribution shared by hardly any other of the Oriental genera of mammals.

One of the Slow Lemurs, Nycticebus, is common to this and the Malayan Sub-region; it bears a certain resemblance to the Indian genus Loris, but is distinguished by its somewhat stouter aspect and its still more sluggish habits.

Among the Monkeys of this Sub-region, in addition to the two genera Macacus and Semnopithecus, inhabiting also the Indian Sub-region, a genus of the anthropoid Apes occurs. This is Hylobates, members of which are commonly known as Gibbons; they are slender animals, with very long limbs and no tail, and are entirely restricted to the forest districts, being exclusively arboreal in their mode of life.

The following summary of the Burmo-Chinese genera of mammals has been drawn up exactly in the same way as the previous list, except that under an additional heading, " Australian," are placed two genera common to the Oriental and Australian Sub-regions:—


Section VI.—The Malayan Sub-region

The Malayan Sub-region lies entirely within the tropics, and almost the whole of it is covered with a luxuriant tropical jungle. It is here, consequently, that we find the Oriental fauna in its highest state of development, and with the least admixture of forms belonging to other Regions. With the exception of the Malay Peninsula, the whole of this Sub-region consists of islands, which, however, are separated from the main continental mass by comparatively shallow water, so that an elevation of 100 fathoms would obliterate the whole of the sea between the various islands, leaving them connected with one another and with the Asiatic continent. There can be no doubt that these islands, all of which have very rich faunas, have been stocked from the mainland, and that a careful study and comparison of their component parts would go far to enable us to trace out the past history of the Region, and to find out what changes have taken place from time to time in the distribution of land and sea.

If a careful analysis of the mammalian genera of the Sub-region be made, it will be found that the greater number of the genera found on the mainland extend to all the three larger islands, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, and that of the remaining genera the larger proportion are common to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo, and are not found in Java. This would seem to indicate that Java was separated from the mainland before Sumatra and Borneo, and this view is further borne out by the fact that individual species of a genus are frequently common to the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo,

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