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(1) ALLEN, J. A. —“The Geographical Distribution of Mammals.” Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv. IV., p. 376 (1878).

(2) — “The Geographical Distribution of North American Mammals.” Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. IV., p. 199 (1892).

(3) FLOWER, W. H., and LYDEKKER, R.-“ An Introduction to the Study of Mammals, Living and Extinct." London (1891).

(4) GILL, T.—“The Principles of Zoo-Geography.” Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, II., p. 1 (1885).

(5) HEILPRIN, A.-—“The Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals." London (1887).

(6) HUXLEY, T. H.—“On the Classification and Distribution of the Alectoromorphæ and Heteromorphæ.” Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868, p. 294.

(7) NEWTON, A.- Article on Geographical Distribution in the “ Dictionary of Birds,” p. 311. London (1893).

(8) SALVADORI, T.—“Catalogue of the Psittaci or Parrots in the Collection of the British Museum.” London (1891).

(9) SCLATER, P. L.—“On the General Geographical Distribution of the Members of the Class Aves.” Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.), vol. ii., p. 130 (1858).

(10) — Address to Section D. (Biology). “Report of the FortyFifth Meeting of the British Association at Bristol," p. 85 (1876).

(11) - "On the recent Advances in our Knowledge of the Geographical Distribution of Birds.” Ibis (6), vol. iii., p. 514 (1891).

(12) SHARPE, R. B.-—“On the Zoo-Geographical Areas of the World.” Nat. Science III., p. 100 (1893).

(13) WALLACE, A. R.—“The Geographical Distribution of Animals." 2 vols. London (1876).




The Australian Region, as will be seen by the map (Plate II.), includes Australia, New Guinea, and the Moluccas, together with all the Pacific Islands and New Zealand. It is divided from the Oriental, the next adjacent region, by a line drawn between the two small islands of Bali and Lombok (called Wallace's Line), and passing thence through the Flores and Molucca Seas, between the islands of Celebes on the one side, and Sumbawa, Flores, Bouru, Sula, and Gilolo on the other. All the islands westwards of this line (i.e. Bali, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and the Philippines) are included in the Oriental Region; while all the islands to the eastwards, from Lombok to Timor, the Moluccas, and New Guinea, are referred to the Australian Region. Besides this, the Australian Region includes all the islands of the Pacific, from the Pelews and Ladrones in the north-west, to the Sandwich Islands in the northeast, the Marquesas in the south-east, and New Zealand and its neighbouring islands in the south-west.

The boundaries, as above given, correspond with those laid down by Wallace in his work on Geographical Distribution, with the exception that the island of Celebes has been transferred to the Oriental Region.

Celebes, as Mr. Wallace has fully shown in his “Island Life” (14), is an anomalous island presenting a very difficult problem. It has doubtless relations to both the Oriental and the Australian Regions, but has besides many peculiar forms inhabiting it, which do not seem to connect it with either region. On the whole, however, the evidence of the mammals, at any rate, serves to connect it more closely with the Oriental Region, as will be seen by the discussion of the subject in the chapter dealing with that Region.


OF THE AUSTRALIAN REGION The peculiarities of the Australian Region are very striking. Within its boundaries are found the only representatives of the lowest and most reptilian of the Orders of Mammals; these are the egg-laying forms, Ornithorhynchus, Echidna, and Proechidna, which constitute the order Monotremata (12).

Of the eight generally recognised families of Marsupials, or “Pouched Animals,” no less than six are entirely confined to the Australian Region, with the exception of two species of phalanger (Phalanger ursinus and P. celebensis), which have crossed the boundary into Celebes. The seventh family, the Didelphyidæ, or true Opossums, are found only in the Neotropical Region, whence they have intruded into the southern part of the Nearctic Region.

Of the other mammals, the Rodents and the Bats are the only orders at all adequately represented in the Australian Region. To the former belong six genera of Muridæ

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