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peculiar genera of Carnivores met with in this Region. One of these (JUluropus) is a curious bear-like creature of a white colour, with the ears, shoulders, limbs, and rings round the eyes black, which has only hitherto been obtained in the high mountains of Eastern Tibet (see
Fig. 39). The other genus, jElurus, sometimes called the Panda, is also found in the same district, but extends southwards into Yunnan. Remains of a closely allied species of this genus have lately been found in the Pliocene deposits of England. This animal is usually placed in the otherwise strictly New World family Procyonidm, which embraces the Raccoons and their allies. The only other carnivorous genus not represented beyond the liunts of the Palaearctic Region is Meles, containing the familiar European Badger and other species.
Fig. 40.—The Water-shrew.
The Insectivora are found in considerable numbers in this Region, three genera of Shrews and three of Moles being restricted to it. Among these are the little Watershrew (Crossopus) found in England, and thence throughout the Palaearctic Region as far as the Altai mountains. Crossopus (Fig. 40) is distinguished by having fringes of stiff hairs along the sides of its feet and tail, which are doubtless of great assistance to it in swimming. Another shrew, Nectogale, found only in Tibet, is still better provided for an aquatic existence, as it has webs between the toes of both fore and hind limbs. The most remarkable endemic representative of the family of Moles in the Pahearctic Region is the Desman, Myogale, of which there are two species, one found in the Pyrenees, and the other in the streams and lakes of South-Eastern Russia. The external appearance of these animals, however, resembles much more that of a Shrew than that of a Mole.
Considering that the whole of this Region lies within the temperate zone, the number of its Bats is considerable, although they mostly belong to widespread genera. The Monkeys are represented in the Palaearctic Region by outlying species of two genera, Macacus and Semnopithecus, which are both abundant in the Oriental Region. To the former of these belongs the well-known Barbary ape (Macacus inuus), which inhabits the Rock of Gibraltar and the Barbary States of Northern Africa, as well as several species of Eastern Asia. Another Macaque (M. tcheliensis) is enabled by its thickened fur to endure the extremely severe climate of the mountains north of Pekin, and is probably the most northern monkey now living.
Section III.—Sub-division Of The Palsarctic
The sub-divisions of the Palaearctic Region recognized by Wallace are four in number; these are—First, the European Sub-region, which includes Europe north of the Alps and the continuing mountain ranges that form the backbone of the continent; secondly, the Mediterranean Sub-region, which consists of the remainder of Europe, Northern Africa, and Western Asia as far as the borders of the Oriental Region; thirdly, the Siberian Sub-region, which includes not only the country from which it takes its name, but also the whole of the desert region of Central Asia, and reaches as far south as the Himalayas; fourth and last, the Manchurian Sub-region, containing the greater part of China proper' and Manchuria together with Japan.
These Sub-regions, however, do not appear to represent the true faunal divisions of the Palaearctic Sub-region quite adequately. In the first place, there seems to be a fairly continuous and unchanging fauna extending from the west of Europe all across Siberia and embracing the northern island (at any rate) of Japan. This wide area is still, to a great extent, covered with forest, and was, no doubt, mainly so beset until within comparatively recent times.
Again, Wallace's arrangement divides between two Subregions the vast extent of desert country that reaches from the Sahara through Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and Turkestan to Mongolia, which also appears to contain a fairly homogeneous fauna. Wallace's Manchurian Subregion, on the other hand, seems to be well established, and to be the most distinctive of all his Sub-regions, but as it only embraces a part of Manchuria, we prefer to call it the Chinese Sub-region.
We may, therefore, distinguish three Sub-regions in the Palaearctic Region as follows:—
1. The Europasian Sub-region, containing Europe, the whole of Siberia north of the great mountain ranges together with the island of Saghalien, and perhaps, too, the Japanese island of Yezo. In this Sub-region must also be included Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the Elburz mountains.
2. The Eremian Sub-region, including the north of Africa, Northern Arabia, the greater part of Persia and Afghanistan, and the great desert of Central Asia, extending from the steppes of Southern Russia as far as Manchuria.
3. The Chinese Sub-region, embracing the greater part of China proper, Southern Manchuria, and Japan, and extending westward to Western Tibet and the top of the southern slopes of the Himalayas.
The boundaries of these Sub-regions will be best understood by referring to the accompanying map (Plate VII., p. 196), in which they are approximately delineated; but it must be always understood that it is in most cases quite impossible to draw a hard and fast line as the boundary between two adjacent Regions on land.
Section IV.—The Europasian Sub-region
The Europasian Sub-region contains the great temperate forest-area of the Northern Hemisphere. In its western part, at any rate, this has been considerably modified by the hand of man, but in primseval times the forests probably extended almost without break from the Bay of Biscay to Kamtchatka.
The Europasian fauna is not very rich; it comprises fifty-seven genera of Mammals, of which four only are