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this sub-family, is the largest Armadillo known, measuring about three feet in the length of its body: it inhabits the forests of Guiana and Brazil. The three species of Tolypeutes, which have the power of rolling themselves up into a ball like a Woodlouse, are restricted to the pampas of Argentina and Bolivia. The members of the two other genera of Dasypodinae (Dasypus and Xenurus) range from Guiana to Patagonia, but are mostly met with in the south.

Of the third sub-family (Tatusiime), distinguished from the rest of the group by the peculiar structure of the fore-feet, five species, all belonging to the genus Tatusia, are known. One of these, the Peba Armadillo, passes up through Central America into Texas, and is also widely distributed throughout South America down to Paraguay. Another species of this genus, T. hirsuta, distinguished by its thick covering of hair, occurs in Western Peru, and the remainder are found in different parts of South America.

The very curious Armadillo, described in 1872 by M. Milne-Edwards (Nouv. Arch. d. Mus., vii., p. 177,1871) from an imperfect specimen as Scleropleura bruneti, is from the province of Ceara, North Brazil. It should apparently form a sub-family of itself.

Section III.—Distribution Of The Old World
Edentates

The Old World mammals, placed in the Order of Edentates, perhaps more from the want of a better position for them than for any other reason, belong to two families —the Maniidm, or Pangolins, and the Orycteropodidm, or

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Aard-Vaarks. Of the Pangolins about seven species are generally acknowledged by naturalists, of which three belong to the Oriental and four to the Ethiopian Region. The species of each region belong to different sections of the genus. The Oriental Section consists of the Javan Pangolin (Manis javanica), which ranges from Burma through the Malay Peninsula to Java and Borneo; the Chinese Pangolin (if. aurita) from China, Assam, and Nepal; and the Indian Pangolin (M. pentadactyla) of India and Ceylon. Of the four species of the African section only one (Temminck's Pangolin) occurs out of the West African Sub-region, extending into Eastern and Southern Africa. Finally we have the Orycteropodidm, or AardVaarks, which comprehend only the single genus Orycteropus, with two species entirely restricted to the Ethiopian Region, and forming one of its most characteristic types of mammal-life.

Section IV.—Summary And Deductions

Table of the families and genera, showing the number of species in each Region.

[table]
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Deductions.

1. The Order Edentata contains about thirty-eight species, referable to fourteen genera and five families.

2. The Order is predominantly Neotropical, three of the families (the Sloths, Ant-eaters, and Armadilloes) with twenty-nine out of the thirty-eight species being confined to this Region.

3. Of the two remaining families one (the Aard-Vaarks) is purely Ethiopian, and the other (the Pangolins) is common to the Ethiopian and Oriental Region.

*

CHAPTER XV

DISTRIBUTION OF MARSUPIALS AND
MONOTREMES

Section I.—Introductory Remarks

The distribution of the two lowest orders of mammals, at which we have now arrived, is a comparatively simple matter, as these primitive creatures, which, according to the views of the highest authorities, form two primary subclasses of the whole class of Mammals (Metatheria and Prototheria), are confined exclusively to two of the great Zoological Regions of the earth. We will, nevertheless, pass the different families and the principal genera of these two orders in short review, and endeavour to point out the principal known facts of their distribution.

Section II.—Distribution Of The Marsupials

The Marsupials have, until recently, been classified in six families, five of which belong to the Australian and one only to the Neotropical Region, and such was the plan of arrangement adopted for them by Mr. Thomas in his excellent catalogue of this group of mammals published in 1888. But great discoveries in this class have been made during the past ten years. A new Marsupial, of a most

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