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idea upon this subject when Mr. Scott Wilson's new work on the Hawaiian Avifauna (16), now in process of issue, has been brought to a conclusion.

As is the case with the Birds, so with the Landshells, which have been carefully studied by the Rev. J. T. Gulick, a wonderful specialisation is found in the Hawaiian fauna.

There are, therefore, ample grounds for making a separate Sub-region for this remote island group, not ! withstanding its small size and the complete absence of mammalian life.

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LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES REFERRED TO IN

CHAPTER II. (1) AMEGHINO, F.—“ Revista Argentina de Historia Natural.' Bian Tomo 1 (1891).

'Samoa (2) COLLETT, R.—“On some apparently New Marsupials from ? Queensland." P. 2. S., 1884, p. 381, pls. xxix.-xxxii.

(3) DOBSON, G. E.—"Catalogue of the Chiroptera in the Collection of the British Museum " (1878).

(4) FORBES, H. 0.—“The Chatham Islands : their Relation to a ll Former Continent." R. Geogr. Soc. Suppl. Papers, III., pt. 4 (1893).

(5) GOULD, J.-—"The Mammals of Australia.” 3 vols. London (1845-63).

(6) LUMHOLTZ, C.—"Notes upon some Mammals recently discovered in Queensland.” P. 2. S., 1884, p. 406.

(7) OGILBY, J. D.-“ Catalogue of Australian Mammals.” Sydney (1892).

(8) PETERS, W., and DORIA, G.—“ Enumerazione dei Mammiferi raccolti da 0. Beccari, L. M. d'Albertis ed A. A. Bruijn nella Nuova Guinea propriamenta detta." Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genov., XVI., p. 665, pls. V.-xviii. (1881).

(9) STIRLING, E. C.—“Description of a New Genus and Species of Marsupialia, Notoryctes typhlops.Trans. R. Soc. S. Austr., XIV., p. 154, pls. ii.-ix. (1891). See also op. cit., p. 283, pl. xii.

(10) THOMAS, 0.—“On the Bats collected by Mr. C. M. Woodford in the Solomon Islands." P. 2. S., 1887, p. 320, pls. xxv. and xxvi.

(11) - “The Mammals of the Solomon Islands, based on the

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ITS DIVISION INTO 5 SUB-REGIONS. ***

Collections of Mr. C. M. Woodford during his Second Expedition to the Archipelago." P. 2. S., 1888, p. 470, pls. XX.-xxii.

(12) THOMAS, 0.-"Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremata in the Collection of the British Museum." London (1888).

(13) — “Description of a New Genus of Murido allied to Hydromys." P. 2. S., 1889, p. 247, pl. xxix.

(14) WALLACE, A. R.-“ Island Life." London (1880).

(15) WIGLESWORTH, L. W.-“ Aves Polynesiæ : a Catalogue of the Birds of the Polynesian Sub-region (not including the Sandwich Islands).” Abth. K. Zool. Mus., Dresden, No. 6 (1891).

(16) WILSON, S. B., and Evans, A. H.-“Aves Hawaiienses : The Birds of the Sandwich Islands." Parts I.-IV., 4to. London (1890-93).

CHAPTER III

THE NEOTROPICAL REGION

(PLATE III., p. 82) SECTION I.-BOUNDARIES OF THE NEOTROPICAL REGION The Neotropical Region is, no doubt, after the Australian, the most distinct of all the regions. It includes not only the continent of South America, but the West Indies, Central America, and a considerable portion of Southern Mexico. As regards its northern termination, on account of the great admixture of Nearctic and Neotropical forms which takes place where the two Regions join, it is impossible to lay down anything but an approximate boundary. Mr. Wallace (11) draws the line from the mouth of the Rio Grande on the Atlantic side to the neighbourhood of Mazatlan, in about the same latitude, on the Pacific side, but bends it down between these two points so as to include in the Nearctic Region the whole of the high tableland down to the city of Mexico.

Some American naturalists, among others Merriam and Allen (1), include in the Neotropical Region the southern extremities of the peninsulas of Lower California and of Florida. This, however, appears to be unnecessary, at least so far as the mammals are concerned, though there are certainly a considerable number of Neotropical birds and insects found in both these districts.

Besides the mainland of Central and South America

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