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land-frontier between the Ethiopian and the Palaearctic Regions, though this is chiefly occupied by desert.
Out of the nine orders of Terrestrial Mammals the Ethiopian Region contains representatives of seven, the
Marsupials and Monotremes being alone absent. The Edentates of this Region are represented by two families. One of these, of which the sole genus is the Aard-vark (Orycteropus), is quite restricted to the Region (see Fig. 13). The other, containing the scaly ant-eaters (Manid&) is found also in the Oriental Region (see Fig. 14). These two forms are in most respects more closely allied to one another than to any of the Edentates of the New World. It is, however, the animals belonging to the Order
Fig. 14.—The White-bellied Pangolin.
Ungulata which form so conspicuous a factor in the Ethiopian fauna. These are distributed among thirty-nine genera, of which no less than twenty-four are not found anywhere outside this Region.
The antelopes, of the family Bovidm, which are most of them large animals living in vast herds in the more open country of eastern and southern Africa, take up the greater number of these genera. These are perhaps, at the present epoch, the most notable feature of the African Fauna, but will doubtless, owing to the unceasing persecution of hunters and sportsmen, become rapidly less so. Already the larger Antelopes are nearly extinct in the Cape
Fig. 15.—The Hippopotamus.
Colony south of the Orange River, and there can be little doubt that, unless special precautions are taken, the large Mammals of Africa will very soon disappear, like those of the United States, before the express and repeater.
Beside the numerous genera of Antelopes, the Ethiopian Region has exclusive possession of two other conspicuous forms of the Ungulates—the Hippopotamus (Fig. 15) and
Region. The only important family of Ungulates not found in the Ethiopian Region is the Deer-family (Cervidm). The total absence of this otherwise widespread family it is difficult to explain. Palseontology does not help us much, since the members of the Deer-tribe appear to have been already well established and abundant in Europe during early Pliocene times, and were contemporaneous with Antelopes and other Ungulates, which have availed themselves of the opportunity of spreading southwards to Africa, while the Cervidm have apparently remained obstinately attached to the Palaearctic Region.
The Sub-order Proboscidea containing the Elephants is in these days represented only in the Ethiopian and Oriental Regions. The Hyraxes (Hyracidm) are absolutely confined to the Ethiopian Region, and constitute one of its most significant forms of mammal life, as not being elsewhere met with
Turning now to the Rodents, we find that the Ethiopian Region possesses representatives of a considerable number of genera, twenty-seven of which, out of a total of thirtynine, are confined to the Region. Two of these genera are sufficiently distinct to be entitled to family rank. These are, first, Ancmwlwrus, a form resembling the flying squirrels in having a flap of skin available for imperfect flight extended between the fore and hind limbs. But the Anomalures differ from the true Flying Squirrels (Pteromys) in having a long cartilaginous process extending from the elbow-joint to support the parachute, and also in being provided with strong imbricated scales attached to the lower surface of the tail, which are probably of assistance in climbing.1
1 A new genus of Anomaluridse (Zenkerdla), lately described by Herr Matschie, has the imbricated scales on the tail, but no parachute. See P. Z. S. 1898, p. 450.