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PLATE I. Outline Map of the World, showing the six

Regions of the Geographical Distribution

of Mammals . . . . . . To face page 16 , II. Map of the Australian Region, showing its

Division into five Sub-regions . . . , 50 ., III. Map of the Neotropical Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions. . . , IV. Map of the Ethiopian Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions. . .
V. Map of the Oriental Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions . . » VI. Map of the Nearctic Region, showing its

Division into three Sub-regions . . , VII. Map of the Palæarctic Region, showing its

Division into three Sub-regions . . ,, VIII. Outline Map of the World, showing the six

Sea-regions · · · · · ·

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152

176

196

216

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Fig. 1. The Duck-bill (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) . .

2. The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) . .

3. The Notoryct (Notoryctes typhlops) . . . „ 4. The Common Wombat (Phascolomys mitchelli) .

5. The Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus) . . .
6. The Papuan Echidna (Proechidna bruijni) . .

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THE NEOTROPICAL REGION

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l'IG. 7. The Quica Opossum (Didelphys opossum) . . . , 8. Hoffmann's Sloth (Cholopus hoffmanni) . . .

9. The Great Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga jubata) . :

10. The Three-banded Armadillo (Tolypeutes tricinctus) . , 11. The Lama (Lama peruana) . . . . . . „ 12. The Barrigudo (Lagothrix humboldti). :..

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THE ETHIOPIAN REGION

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Fig. 13. The Cape Aard-vark (Orycteropus capensis) . „ 14. The White-bellied Pangolin (Manis tricuspis) . „ 15. The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) .

16. The Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) . . . , 17. The Aard-wolf (Proteles cristatus) . . . „ 18. The Chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes)

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THE

GEOGRAPHY OF MAMMALS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

(Plate I., p. 16) It has long been evident to naturalists that the ordinary political divisions of the earth's surface do not correspond with those based on the geographical distribution of animal life. Europe, for instance, the most important of all the continents politically speaking, is for zoological geographers, as well as for physical, but a small fragment of Asia. Again, the strip of Africa which borders the Mediterranean and extends to the Sahara agrees closely, as regards its animal life, with Europe, and is altogether different from the great mass of the African continent. Proceeding to America we find that physical geographers, as well as political, divide the two great masses of the New World at Panama. But those who study distribution have ascertained that Central America and Southern Mexico belong zoologically to South America, and they are consequently obliged to place the line of demarcation much further north.

Let us, therefore, dismiss from our minds for the moment the ordinary notions of both physical and political

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