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LIST OF MAPS

Plate I. Outline Map of the World, showing the six Regions of the Geographical Distribution of Mammals To face paijc 16

,, II. Map of the Australian Region, showing its

Division into five Sub-regions ... „ 50

III. Map of the Neotropical Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions... „ 82

,, IV. Map of the Ethiopian Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions... „ 122

,, V. Map of the Oriental Region, showing its

Division into four Sub-regions . ., 152

,, VI. Map of the Nearctic Region, showing its

Division into three Sub-regions . . „ 176

,, VII. Map of the Palsearctic Region, showing its

Division into three Sub-regions . „ 196

,, VIII. Outline Map of the World, showing the six

Sea-regions ,. 216

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

THE AUSTKALIAN REGION

PAQI

Fig. 1. The Duck-bill (Ornithorhynchm antttinvs) 23

„ 2. The Thylacine (T/iyiacinus cynocephahus) .... 25

,, 3. The Notoryct (Xoloryctes typhlops) 27

, , 4. The Common Wombat (Phttsrotomys milchelli) ... 28

,, 5. The Red Kangaroo (Mocropus rufus) 31

,, 6. The Papuan Echidna (Proechidna bruijni) .... 38

THE NEOTROPICAL REGION

Fio. 7. The Quiea Opossum (Didelphys opossum) .... 56

„ 8. Hoffmann's Sloth (Cholopus hoffmanni) .... 57 „ 9. The Great Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga jubata) . .■ .58

„ 10. The Three-banded Armadillo (To/yprutes tricinetus) . . 59

, 11. The Lama (Lama peruana) 60

„ 12. The Barrigudo (Lagothrir humboldti). ... . . 64

THE ETHIOPIAN REGION

Fio. 13. The Cape Aard-vark (Orycteropus capensii) ... 89

„ 14. The White-bellied Pangolin (Mania tricuspis) ... 90

„ 15. The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) ... 91

„ 16. The Giraffe (Girafa camelopardalis) 92

„ 17. The Aard-wolf (Proteles rristatus) 95

„ 18. The Chimpanzee (A nthropopitheeus troglodytes) . . 97

THE

GEOGKAPHY OF MAMMALS

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

(plate L, p. 16)

It has long been evident to naturalists that the ordinary political divisions of the earth's surface do not correspond with those based on the geographical distribution of animal life. Europe, for instance, the most important of all the continents politically speaking, is for zoological geographers, as well as for physical, but a small fragment of Asia. Again, the strip of Africa which borders the Mediterranean and extends to the Sahara agrees closely, as regards its animal life, with Europe, and is altogether different from the great mass of the African continent. Proceeding to America we find that physical geographers, as well as political, divide the two great masses of the New World at Panama. But those who study distribution have ascertained that Central America and Southern Mexico belong zoologically to South America, and they are consequently obliged to place the line of demarcation much further north.

Let us, therefore, dismiss from our minds for the moment the ordinary notions of both physical and political

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