Four Creations: An Epic Story of the Chiapas Mayas

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Gary H. Gossen
University of Oklahoma Press, 2002 - 1134 páginas
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Four Creations is a collection of seventy-four stories told to Gary H. Gossen by Tzotzil Maya storytellers in San Juan Chamula, Mexico. Spanning four cycles of creations, destructions, and restorations from the dawn of cosmic order to the present era, this epic history reveals a distinctly Maya vision of the universe, grand in scope yet leavened with local humor, irony, and the Tzotzil narrators’ own critical commentaries.

Four Creations includes mythic accounts of modern history, such as the Wars of Independence, the Mexican Revolution, and the current Protestant evangelical movement. Given in both transcribed Tzotzil and English translations, the texts are enlivened by more than one hundred Maya Indian drawings and by Gossen’s extensive ethnographic and historical notes based on his conversations with the narrators and more than thirty-five years of study.

Miguel León-Portílla’s Foreword situates Four Creations within the broader context of Mesoamerican culture and traditions, while the Afterword by Jan Rus relates this work to recent events in modern-day Chamula.

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Contenido

Foreword by Miguel LeónPortilla
xxxii
Translation Methods
xlv
PART
10
XI
20
Text
21
Text 3
31
Text 4
71
Text 5
81
On the Adventures of Xun beyond the
539
199
576
Children
607
Pukuj
643
SECTION 2
711
On the Lacandon People of Chiapas Who Are Like
723
About Tenejapanecos Who Engage in Witchcraft
731
Of an Encounter with a Potzlom the Soul of a Witch
741

About How the Ancient Ones Ate Their
203
Of Our Father Sun and His Older Brother
285
About How the Second People Became Monkeys
297
About a Time When Raccoons Were Still People
307
Of Olden Days When Weeds Could Speak
315
Text 26
321
About How Our Lord San Juan Made His Home
337
Text 28
349
Text 29
375
Text 30
383
Text 31
399
Text 32
409
Text 33
415
Text
449
Text 36
457
Of the Beeswax
471
Of Music
491
Text 39
509
Text 40
529
The Perils of an Animal Soul as Revealed in a Dream
753
She Killed Her AnimalSoul Companion and Thus
763
SECTION 3
769
Of the Troubles of Men Who Have Turned into
781
Of an Unfaithful Wife Who Goes to the Grave with
797
Abducted by a Demon Lover
809
SECTION 4
821
About the Great Famine
831
About How Coyotes Came to Chamula
845
Everything We Bought
857
Accounts from Old Men about Olden Times
865
Live with Us Forever as Rats
943
PART 4
1031
THE FOURTH CREATION
1091
Maps
1111
Text 16
1114
Text 20
1123
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