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one district held sheep in adoration, another eat them, and so of goats. Some venerated the crocodile, but in another part of the country the crocodile was slain without hesitation. The cow was deemed a sacred animal, and the bull, Apis, was worshipped, but the priests, and, it would appear, other people, had no scruples about encountering a round of beef or a loin of veal.
This general hatred of shepherds plainly arose from the invasion of a race of what were called "shepherd kings," from the East, who took and ruled Lower Egypt, while Upper Egypt was in the hands of the native sovereigns. They are represented by the priests as a herd of the most cruel tyrants, probably because they curtailed priestly authority, and closed many of the temples. Manetho, the Egyptian priest and historian, tells the story of these kings, who, he says, ruled 511 years, and originally came from Arabia. rative or a fragment of it, rather-of Manetho, is preserved by Josephus, who says this invading people were not Arabs, but Canaanites, who, on their expulsion from Egypt, went to Syria and built Jerusalem. Manetho seems to have confounded this shepherd race with the Jews, or to have mixed the two accounts, and gives a story of a priest who became their leader, and who, he says, changed his name from Osarsiph to Moses. He states that Moses was a leprous person, plainly to bring his character into disrepute, in order to cover the national humiliation and disgrace of his country, contained in the narrative of the Scriptures, which had been made known in the version called the Septuagint, just about that time translated from the Hebrew into Greek. Some authorities, however, are of opinion that the writer of this passage was not the genuine Manetho, but a pretender who had adopted his name, and written this passage for mere party purposes, while Bunsen, seeing the whole thing to be fable, states that the account might be Manetho's, but that he only "relates it as a popular legend.' Be that as it may, there is little doubt that the narrative of the invasion and expulsion of the shepherd kings is correct in substance, though mixed with fable, and it supplies us with this testimony, at least, that there was a man called Moses, who lived in Egypt, but was not a native; that he taught his countrymen to abhor idolatry (for so the account goes on to state); and that at length he and his followers were driven out of Egypt. This, at all events, is an ancient Egyptian record, agreeing in several important particulars with the Bible account. Even if a pretended Manetho were the writer (the real Manetho derived his account from the records of the priests), he must have recorded the traditionary account of the events as preserved in Egypt, for no one could have invented a story so near the truth in some of the main facts. Moreover, the "shepherd kings," according to Manetho, reigned at Memphis, and names are given of the first six. Two of these names have been found at the burial-place of that ancient city, now in ruins, namely, Aphophis and Assis, and the tomb of one of the officers of the king who, according to Manetho, expelled the shepherds, has been found in the same ruins. Besides this, Rosellini, in his work, has a picture copied from the walls of Karnac, representing the conquests of King Sethos. Among the long row of captives, translated from the hieroglyphics, is one whose name is given as "Shōs," which
in the Coptic, we are told, is "shepherd," and which Josephus, in his version of Manetho, writes in Greek "Sōs." Another of these pictures shows, on a hill, near a fort, covered with trees, and skirted on one side by a lake, a great victory over the "Shōs," and on this fort is inscribed in hieroglyphics these words-" The fort of the land of Canaan." This seems to indicate, at all events, that these "shepherds" were not Arabs, as represented by Manetho, but Canaanites, according to Josephus; and it seems strongly to support the substance of Manetho's narrative.
As Manetho proceeds with his story-mixing up the account of the shepherd race with the bondage and exodus of the children of Israel he tells us that, warned by the priests, the King of Upper Egypt resolved to cleanse the whole country of these lepers, and gathered 80,000 of them together, and sent them to work in the quarries on the east side of the Nile. It is while in this miserable state that they are erroneously said to have revolted under the leadership of Moses, and under whom they were driven from the country. Whatever may have been the period during which these "shepherd kings" ruled in Lower Egypt, it is plain that when Abraham was in Egypt, the shepherd was not held as "an abomination by the Egyptians." Either their rule, as it would seem from this, commenced immediately after his return to Canaan, or they were at that time in possession of the country-Lower Egypt-and therefore looked upon Abraham's calling as an honourable occupation. It is quite possible that when Abraham was in the country, and especially as there appears to have been no particular antipathy to "shepherds," that these "shepherd kings" were actually at that time in possession, which would account for it. But between the time of Abraham and Joseph, on this theory, they must have been expelled, for Joseph told his brethren that "a shepherd was an abomination in Egypt." authorities give other theories, but the whole subject of Egyptian chronology is confused and uncertain. Manetho, it should be observed, speaks of the shepherds coming a second time; but there is no evidence beyond his own assertion to back the statement. Some have objected, that as the account in Genesis speaks about the animals given to Abraham, and leaves out the horse, which was native to the country, that the writer was ignorant of this, and simply named the animals common in his own country; but to this it is enough to say, that even the Egyptians themselves made little use of horses as we use them at present. They are spoken of as used in war, it is true, but it is strange that amongst the huge mass of sculptures found in Egypt, depicting all kinds of customs, occupations, and events, only one (at least so it was a few years back) has been found representing a man on horseback. And then, it is well known-to say nothing of the fact that a shepherd needs no horses while he has oxen --that, for a very long period, the Jews did not use the horse at all, certainly not until the times of the Kings of Judea; so that the absence of the horse in the enumeration of Abraham's stock rather goes to show the truthfulness of this narrative; at all events, it is a very strong presumption that the writer of the account was conversant with the position occupied by the horse in both countries. Some have even said—and even pretentious German critics, too—
that there were no asses in Egypt; but this is nothing less than a mark of want of information, for there are plenty pictured on the monuments, loaded with a kind of pannier, and doing their work in earnest.
If we look into the incidents connected with the life of Joseph, as related in Genesis (which the reader will now do well to read), we shall find the same agreement between the sacred narrative and the story as told by the monuments. Joseph was sold by his brothers to the “Midianites," or Arab merchants. There is good reason for believing that, at that time, Arab merchants traded in Egypt, where in the earliest periods the people made very free use of spices and gums. Sir Gardner Wilkinson speaks of certain wells in the desert, by which the Arabs would be obliged to pass for water on their way to the Nile, and then states that, according to the monuments, King Amun-in gori (of the sixteenth dynasty) erected a station to command these wells at the Wady Jasoos, for the convenience of caravans and passengers from Arabia to Egypt; besides which, he believes that the port Aenum, on the Red Sea, was founded for the same purpose. Joseph was sold, it will be remembered, for "twenty pieces of silver," not evidently in "coined" money. This agrees, too, with the usages of the times and with the monuments, where, though the Egyptians had reached so advanced a civilization, money is shown to have passed by weight, in the shape of ingots, bars, and rings. That he should have been sold as a slave, and to a "captain of the guard," is not unlikely, for that slavery existed there we have already seen, and that the king kept a "body guard" is beyond dispute, as these are seen on the monuments, while Herodotus mentions the "king's body guard" expressly. The "overseership" which Joseph got at Pharaoh's house is quite consistent with the common custom of the country; for "overseers" were a class, or rather were classes of men, as we have before seen represented on the monuments, found in every establishment of any note or magnitude. They were placed over land, over the corn-crop, over granaries, over the household, over gardens, and over many other departments of labour. Both Herodotus and Diodorus distinctly state that there was great looseness of principle in Egypt as to the marriage relation, and there is no wonder, therefore, that after Potiphar's wife had been rebuked for certain indecent behaviour towards Joseph, that she should have sought revenge by trying to throw the blame on him. The interpretations of the dreams of the "chief baker and butler" by Joseph, need not be dwelt upon, for we have before seen that these men-bakers, &c.—were commonly employed in respectable houses, and we have spoken of the kitchen, with all its appurtenances, boilings, roastings, and bakings, as sculptured on the tombs and other places. It will be remembered that in the baker's dream he is made to carry "three white baskets on his head," the "uppermost" of which was full of "bakemeats." Now these baskets, which were wicker-work, abound on the monuments; and they are made flat, so that a person might easily have half a dozen placed on his head. One of the monuments shows a servant, with such a loaded basket, kneeling, that another might the more easily remove it from her head; and the custom of carrying burdens in this fashion is still common in Egypt. When Joseph was
called before Pharaoh to interpret his dream, "he shaved himself," we are told. To an Englishman, who regards cleanliness, this seems a very natural and necessary operation; but it would have appeared quite otherwise in any country but Egypt at that time. Almost all Eastern peoples have always thought much of, and cultivated the beard. Its loss was regarded as a disgrace. But, on the contrary, in Egypt, the face was always clean-shaven, as may be seen in hundreds of instances on the sculptures. If here and there one appears with a beard, the beard always has the appearance of having been fastened on, as an artificial mark of the male sex. "So particular were they," says Wilkinson, "on this point, that to have neglected it was a subject of reproach and ridicule." The priests even shaved the head; and other people cropped their hair as closely as does the barber of the modern inmates of the Old Bailey. If a man appears represented on the monuments in long hair, it is always in the shape of a wig, as shown by Wilkinson in his engravings (which see). Joseph, however, had been in prison, and had allowed his beard to grow, but he knew that it would have been an indecency to appear before the king in that condition, and he therefore "shaved." The writer of this account plainly knew the Egyptian custom, though it differed from almost all other Eastern peoples'; or, if he had written at a guess, it must have been a remarkably fortunate one.
The "seven fat and seven lean kine,” in Pharaoh's dream, are just as remarkable, viewed as an invention, for it so happens that, in the symbolical writings of the Egyptians, the ox represents agriculture and subsistence, and the Nile, out of which the cattle came, is regarded as an emblem of the source of fertility, which-taking in the lean kine as an appropriate prefigurement of plenty and dearth, could hardly be surpassed. So of the "seven ears of corn" represented as belonging to one stalk-about which critics have cavilled a good deal -for though such a kind of wheat was then, and is still unknown in Palestine, it was not unknown in Egypt, nor is it at the present time. As we have before intimated, such a kind of wheat has been recently grown in England, from seeds brought from an Egyptian tomb; and Dr. Hawks, in his "Monuments of Egypt" (which see), states that the same kind of wheat now grows in California, and usually yields seven ears to one stalk. The "magicians and wise men," sent for by Pharaoh to interpret his dreams, were a class of men called "holy scribes," who were always applied to to explain difficult questions, and who seem to have been educated for the purpose. Divination was a part of these men's business, and when pestilence raged, they pretended to stay it by magic. In the Bible they are called "wise men," by the Greeks " sages;" and Lucian, speaking of a voyage, says that "There was with us in the vessel a man of Memphis, one of the holy scribes, wonderful in wisdom, and skilled in all sorts of Egyptian knowledge. It was said of him," he continues, "that he had lived twenty-three years in subterranean sanctuaries, and that he had been instructed in magic by Iris."
When Pharaoh made Joseph head "over his house," it indicated what is said immediately afterwards, that he had "set Joseph over all the land of Egypt." The office of "steward" in the house of a mere subject conferred great power, but when a king conferred this honour,
it meant that the recipient should be the first man in the kingdom after the king himself. "Only in the throne will I be greater than thou," added this Pharaoh; and this account perfectly accords with the practice of Eastern despots until this day, as instance the Pachas and Beys of the Turkish sovereigns, who are still invested with the most arbitrary authority. The "ring" given to Joseph was a badge of authority, and was a seal-ring, no doubt given to attest Joseph's official acts. There are numbers of these signet-rings cut in the monuments, and many real ones have been found, and are preserved in private cabinets. They are still used in Persia and other Eastern countries in place of the signature of the sovereign. In Egypt, a counterfeiter of these rings was punished by the loss of both hands; in Persia such a crime is now death to the criminal. The "vestures of fine linen" in which Joseph was arrayed, were another badge of high office. Wilkinson tells us that, in a tomb at Thebes, there is the representation of a "fan-bearer" to the king-a post only held by royal princes and sons of the first nobility-where the priests are clothing him in his new robes, one putting on the necklace, and another arranging his dress, &c. Nor is anything better attested by monumental evidence than the practice of placing a "gold chain," or necklace, round the necks of those installed into important posts, as was done by Pharaoh to Joseph. Over one of these sculptured chains, in the tomb of Beni Hassan, are the words, "necklace of gold." But representations of these chains and necklaces are very numerous. The change in Joseph's name by the king was not only intended to naturalize him, but was another mark of honour, as the name itself imports. Zaphnath-paaneah, we are told by scholars, means "saviour," or "sustainer of the age," a not inappropriate designation, for Joseph, no doubt, not only saved Egypt from starvation, but introduced a system of government which saved the country from anarchy and disruption, into which it was fast going, and which, for many ages, gave it comparative quiet and prosperity.
The marriage of Joseph to Poti-pherah (a priest's daughter) of Ou, is worthy of remark. This word "On" is the ancient Coptic word for "sun," we are told; and the name Poti-pherah means "of" or "belonging to the sun." Now On was a very noted city in Egypt, celebrated for the learning of its priests, and here it was, the Greeks tell us, that Plato and Eudoxus studied under the priests for thirteen years. Strabo says, when he was in Egypt he was shown the house in which they received their instruction at Heliopolis, which is the Greek for On, meaning "the city of the sun." The monuments show that this city must have been in existence before Joseph's time, and Strabo says that in his day the temple was very ancient; while Herodotus speaks of the priests of Heliopolis as the most learned men in the country. That Pharaoh should have married Joseph to the daughter of a high-priest of such celebrity-and the high-priests were a sort of hereditary princes-is no wonder, because it would at once give him a standing corresponding with the dignity of the office into which he had just been installed. But if the writer in Genesis should have dropped upon the name of this city and of this priest's daughter by chance, it would be about the most wonderful hap-hazard stroke in all history.