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the wrong he had done; and was not in a condition to support it. However, he did what he could to assemble his forces together from all quarters; and, in the mean time, dispatched his youngest son, called Sabaris, into the mountains, with his wives, his daughters, and whatever was most precious and valuable. But when he was informed by his Scouts, that Cyrus was coming upon their heels, he entirely lost all courage, and all thoughts of making a defence. The Armenians, following his example, ran away, every one where he could to secure what was dearest to him. Cyrus, seeing the country covered with people, that were endeavouring to make their escape, sent them word, that no harm should be done them if they staid in their houses; but that as many as were taken running away, should be treated as enemies. This made them all retire to their habitations, excepting a few that followed the king.
On the other hand, they that were conducting the princesses to the mountains, fell into the ambush Chrysanthes had laid for them, and were most of them taken prisoners. The queen, the king's son, his daughters, his eldest son's wife, and his treasures, all fell into the hands of the Persians.
The king, hearing this melancholy news, and not knowing what would become of him, retired to a little eminence; where he was presently invested by the Persian army, and soon obliged to surrender. Cyrus ordered him, with all his family, to be brought into the midst of the army. At the very instant arrived Tigranes the king's eldest son, who was just returned from a journey. At so moving a spectacle he could not forbear weeping. Cyrus, addressing himself to him, said: "Prince, you are come very seasonably to be present at the "trial of your father." And immediately he assembled the captains of the Persians and Medes; and called in also the great men of Armenia. Nor did he so much as exclude the ladies from this assembly, who were there in their chariots, but gave them full liberty to hear and see all that passed.
When all was ready, and Cyrus had commanded silence, he began with requiring of the king, that in all the questions he was going to propose to him, he would answer sincerely, because nothing could be more unworthy a person of his rank, than to use dissimulation or falsehood. The king promised he would. Then Cyrus asked him, but at different times, proposing each article separately and in order, whether it was not true, that he had made war against Astyages, king of the Medes, his grandfather; whether he had not been overcome in that war, and in consequence of his defeat had concluded a treaty with Astyages; whether by virtue of that treaty he was not obliged to pay a certain tribute, to furnish a certain number of troops, and not to keep any fortified
place in his country? It was impossible for the king to deny any of these facts, which were all public and notorious. "For what reason then (continued Cyrus) have you violated "the treaty in every article ?"" For no other (replied the
king) than because I thought it a glorious thing to shake off "the yoke, to live free, and to leave my children in the same "condition."" It is really glorious (answered Cyrus) to fight "in defence of liberty: but if any one, after he is reduced to "servitude, should attempt to run away from his master, "what would you do with him?" "I must confess (says the king) I would punish him." And if you had given a go"vernment to one of your subjects, and he should be found "to have committed malversations, would you continue him "in his post ?" "No, certainly; I would put another in his "place? "And if he had amassed great riches by his unjust "practices?" "I would strip him of them."" But, which is "still worse, if he had held intelligence with your enemies, "how would you treat him?"" Though I should pass sen"tence upon myself (replied the king) I must declare the "truth: I would put him to death." At these words Tigranes tore his tiara from his head, and rent his garments: the women burst out into lamentations and outcries, as if sentence had actually passed upon him.
Cyrus having again commanded silence, Tigranes addressed himself to the prince to this effect: "Great prince, can you think it consistent with your wisdom to put my father "to death, even against your own interest?" "How against "my interest?" (replied Cyrus.) "Because he was never
so capable of doing you service." "How do you make "that appear? Do the faults we commit enhance our merit, "and give us a new title to consideration and favour?" "They
certainly do, provided they serve to make us wiser. For "of inestimable value is wisdom: are either riches, courage,
or address to be compared to it? Now it is evident, this single day's experience has infinitely improved my father's "wisdom. He knows how dear the violation of his word has "cost him. He has proved and felt how much you are supe"rior to him in all respects. He has not been able to succeed "in any of his designs; but you have happily accomplished "all yours: and with that expedition and secrecy, that he "has found himself surrounded, and taken, before he ex"pected to be attacked; and the very place of his retreat has "served only to ensnare him." "But your father (replied 46 Cyrus) has yet undergone no sufferings that can have "taught him wisdom.""The fear of evils, (answered Ti66 granes) when it is so well founded as this is, has a much 46 sharper sting, and is more capable of piercing the soul than the evil itself, Besides permit me to say, that gratitude is
a stronger, and more prevailing motive, than any what“ever; and there can be no obligations in the world of a "higher nature, than those you will lay upon my father. "His fortune, liberty, sceptre, life, wives, and children, all "restored to him with such a generosity: where can you “find, illustrious prince, in one single person, so many strong “and powerful ties to attach him to your service?"
Well then (replied Cyrus, turning to the king), “if I "should yield to your son's entreaties, with what number of 66 men, and what sum of money, will you assist us in the war "against the Babylonians?" "My troops and treasures (says "the Armenian king) are no longer mine; they are entirely yours. I can raise 40,000 foot and 8,000 horse; and as to money, I reckon, that, including the treasure which my father left me, there are about 3,000 talents ready money. "All these are wholly at your disposal." Cyrus accepted half the number of the troops, and left the king the other half, for the defence of the country against the a Chaldeans, with whom he was at war. The annual tribute which was due to the Medes he doubled, and instead of 50 talents exacted 100, and borrowed the like sum over and above in his own name. "But what would you give me (added Cyrus) for "the ransom of your wives?" "All that I have in the world," (answered the king). “And for the ransom of you children?"
The same thing." "From this time then you are indebt"ed to me the double of all your possessions." "And you, "Tigranes, at what price would you redeem the liberty of "your lady?" Now he had but lately married her, and was passionately fond of her. "At the price (says he) of 1,000
lives, if I had them." Cyrus then conducted them all to his tent, and entertained them at supper. It is easy to imagine what transports of joy there must have been upon this
After supper, as they were discoursing upon various subjects, Cyrus asked Tigranes, what was become of a governor he had often seen hunting with him, and for whom he had a particular esteem. "Alas! (says Tigranes) he is "no more; and I dare not tell you by what accident I lost "him." Cyrus pressing him to tell him; " My father (con"tinued Tigranes) seeing I had a very tender affection for "this governor, and that I was extremely attached to him,
conceived some suspicions against him, and put him to "death. But he was so worthy a man, that, as he was ready "to expire, he sent for me, and spoke to me in these words: “Figranes, let not my death occasion any disaffection in you
a Xenophon never calls the people of Babylonia Chaldeans. But Herodotus, 1.vii. c. 63, and Strabo, l. xvi. p 739, style them so. The Chaldeans meant in this place were a people adjoining to Armenia.
"towards the king your father. What he has done to me "did not proceed from malice, but only from prejudice, and "O "a false notion wherewith he was unhappily blinded." "the excellent man! (cried Cyrus) never forget the last "advice he gave you.”
When the conversation was ended, Cyrus, before they parted, embraced them all, in token of a perfect reconciliation. This done, they got into their chariots with their wives, and went home full of gratitude and admiration. Nothing but Cyrus was mentioned the whole way; some extolling his wisdom, others his valour; some admiring the sweetness of his temper, others praising the beauty of his person, and the majesty of his mien. "And you, (says Tigranes, "addressing himself to his lady) what do you think of Cyrus's aspect and deportment?" "I do not know, (replied the lady) I did not observe him." "Upon what object then "did you fix your eyes?" "Upon him that said he would
give 1,000 lives as the ransom of my liberty.”
The next day, the king of Armenia sent presents to Cyrus, and refreshments for his whole army, and brought him double the sum of money he was required to furnish. But Cyrus took only what had been stipulated, and restored him the rest. The Armenian troops were ordered to be ready in three days time, and Tigranes desired to command them.
I have thought proper, for several reasons, to give so cireumstantial an account of this affair; though I have so far abridged it, that it is not above a quarter of what we find it in Xenophon.
In the first place, it may serve to give the reader, a notion of the style of that excellent historian, and excite his curiosity to consult the original, the natural and unaffected beauties of which are sufficient to justify the singular esteem which persons of good taste have ever had for the noble simplicity of that author. To mention but one instance; what an idea of chastity and modesty, and at the same time what a wonderful simplicity, and delicacy of thought are there in the answer of Tigranes's wife, who has no eyes but for her husband!
In the second place, those short, close and pressing interrogations, each of which demand a direct, precise answer from the king of Armenia, discover the disciple and scholar of Socrates, and show in what manner he retained the taste of his master.
Besides, this relation will give us some idea of the judgment that ought to be formed of Xenophon's Cyropædia; the substance of which is true, though it is embellished with several circumstance added by the author, and introduced expressly to grace his instructive lessons, and the excellent
rules he lays down concerning government. Thus much therefore in the event we are treating of is real. The king of Armenia having refused to pay the Medes the tribute he owed them, Cyrus attacked him suddenly, and before he suspected any designs against him, made himself master of the only fortress he had, and took his family prisoners; obliged him to pay the usual tribute, and to furnish his quota of troops; and after all so won upon him by his humanity and courteous behaviour, that he rendered him one of the faithfullest and most affectionate allies the Medes ever had. The rest is inserted only by way of embellishment, and is rather to be ascribed to the historian, than to the history itself.
I should never have found out myself, what the story of the governor's being put to death by Tigranes's father signified, though I was very sensible it was a kind of enigma, and figurative of something else. "A person of quality, one of the greatest wits and finest speakers of the last age, who was perfectly well acquainted with the Greek authors, gave me an explanation of it many years ago, which I have not forgotten, and which I take to be the true meaning of that enigma. He supposed that Xenophon intended it as a picture of the death of his master Socrates, of whom the state of Athens became jealous, on account of the extraordinary attachment all the youth of the city had to him; which at last gave occasion to that philosopher's condemnation and death, which he suffered without murmur or complaint.
In the last place, I thought it proper not to miss this opportunity of pointing out such qualities in my hero, as are not always to be met with in persons of his rank; and such as, by rendering them infinitely more valuable than all their military virtues, would most contribute to the success of their designs. In most conquerors we find courage, resolution, intrepidity, a capacity for martial exploits, and all such talents as make a noise in the world, and are apt to dazzle people by their glaring outside; but an inward stock of goodness, compassion and gentleness towards the unhappy, an air of moderation and reserve even in prosperity and victory, an insinuating and persuasive behaviour, the art of gaining people's hearts, and attaching them to him more by affection than interest; a constant, unalterable care always to have right on his side, and to imprint such a character of justice and equity upon all his conduct, as his very enemies are forced to revere; and, lastly, such a clemency, as to distinguish those that offend through imprudence rather than malice, and to leave room for their repentance, by giving
a M. de Comte de Tresvilles,