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of the latter, he caused him to be assassinated in the midst of Rome. However, the murderer was seized, and delivered up to the civil magistrate, and Jugurtha was commanded to depart Italy. Upon leaving the city, he cast back his eyes several times towards it and said, "Rome would sell itself "could it meet with a purchaser; and were one to be found, "it were inevitably ruined ."

And now the war broke out anew. At first the indolence, or perhaps connivance, of Albinus the consul, made it go on very slowly; but afterwards, when he returned to Rome to hold the public assemblies, the Roman army, by the unskilfulness of his brother Aulus, having marched into a defile from whence there was no getting out, it surrendered ignominiously to the enemy, who forced the Romans to submit to the ceremony of passing under the yoke, and made them engage to leave Numidia in ten days.

The reader will naturally suppose, that so shameful a peace, concluded without the authority of the people, was considered in a most odious light at Rome. They could not flatter themselves with the hope of being successful in this war, till the conduct of it was given to L. Metellus the consul. To all the rest of the virtues which constitute the great captain, he added a perfect disregard of wealth; a quality most essentially requisite against such an enemy as Jugurtha, who hitherto had always been victorious, rather by money than his sword. But the African monarch found Metellus as inaccessible in this, as in all other respects. He therefore was forced to venture his life, and exert his utmost bravery, through the defect of an expedient which now began to fail him. Accordingly, he signalized himself in a surprising manner; and showed in this campaign, all that could be expected from the courage, abilities, and attention of an illustrious general, to whom despair adds new vigour, and suggests new lights: he was, however, unsuccessful, because opposed by a consul, who did not suffer the most inconsiderable error to escape him, nor ever let slip an opportunity of taking advantage of the enemy.

Jugurtha's greatest concern was, how to secure himself from traitors. From the time he had been told, that Bomilcar, in whom he reposed the utmost confidence, had a design upon his life, he enjoyed no peace. He did not believe himself safe any where; but all things, by day as well as by night, the citizen as well as the foreigner, were suspected by him; and the blackest terrors sat for ever brooding over

a Postquam Roma egressus est, fertur sæpe tacitus eo respiciens, postremo dixisse. Urbem venälein et mature perituram si emptorem invenerit.

b For electing inagistrates. Sal

e In Numidiam proficiscitur. nagna specivium, cum propter artes bonas, tum maxime quod adversum divitias invictum animum gerebat..



his mind. He never got a wink of sleep, except by stealth; and often changed his bed in a manner unbecoming his rank. Starting sometimes from his slumbers, he would snatch his sword, and break into loud cries; so strongly was he haunted by fear, which almost drove him to frenzy.

Marius was Metellus's lieutenant. His boundless ambition induced him to endeavour to lessen his general's character secretly in the minds of his soldiers, and becoming soon his professed enemy and slanderer, he at last, by the most grovelling and perfidious arts, prevailed so far as to supplant Metellus, and get himself nominated in his room, to carry on the war against Jugurtha. a With what strength of mind soever Metellus might be endued on other occasions, he was totally dejected by this unforeseen blow, which even forced tears from his eyes, and compelled him to utter such expressions as were altogether unworthy so great a man There was something very dark and vile in Marius's conduct; a circumstance that displays ambition in its native and genuine colours, and shows that it extinguishes, in those who abandon themselves to it, all sense of honour and integrity. Metellus having anxiously endeavoured to avoid a man whose sight he could not bear, arrived in Rome, and was received there with universal acclamations. A triumph was decreed him, and the surname of Numidicus conferred upon him

I thought it would be proper to reserve for the Roman history, a particular account of the events that happened in Africa, under Metellus and Marius, all which are very circumstantially described by Sallust, in his admirable history of Jugurtha. I therefore hasten to the conclusion of this war. Jugurtha being greatly distressed in his affairs, had recourse to Bocchus king of Mauritania, whose daughter he had married. This country extends from Numidia, as far as beyond the shores of the Mediterranean, opposite to Spain c. The Roman name was scarce known in it, and the people were absolutely unknown to the Romans. Jugurtha insinuated to his father-in-law, that should he suffer Numidia to be conquered, his kingdom_would doubtless be involved in its ruin; especially as the Romans, who were sworn enemies to monarchy, seemed to have vowed the destruction of all the thrones in the universe. He therefore prevailed with Bocchus to enter into a league with him; and accordingly received, on different occasions, very considerable succours from that king.

a Quibus rebus supra bonum atque honestum perculsus, neque lacrymas tenere, neque moderari linguam: vir egregius in aliis artibus, nimis molliter ægri tudinein pati.

A. M. 3898. A. Rom. 642,

Now comprehending Fez, Morocco, &c.

This confederacy, which was cemented on either side by no other tie than that of interest, had never been strong; and a last defeat which Jugurtha met with, broke at once all the bands of it. Bocchus now meditated the dark design of delivering up his son-in-law to the Romans. For this purpose he had desired Marius to send him a trusty person. Sylla, who was an officer of uncommon merit, and served under him as quæstor, was thought every way qualified for this negociation. He was not afraid to put himself into the hands of the Barbarian king; and accordingly set out for his court. Being arrived, Bocchus, who, like the rest of his countrymen, did not pride himself on sincerity, and was for ever projecting new designs, debated within himself, whether it would not be his interest to deliver up Sylla to Jugurtha. He was a long time fluctuating in this uncertainty, and conflicting with a contrariety of sentiments: and the sudden changes which displayed themselves in his countenance, in his air, and his whole person, showed evidently how strongly his mind was affected. At length, returning to his first design, he made his terms with Sylla, and delivered up Jugurtha into his hands, who was sent immediately to Marius.

a Sylla, says Plutarch, acted, on this occasion, like a young man, fired with a strong thirst of glory, the sweets of which he has just begun to taste. Instead of ascribing to the general, under whom he fought, all the honour of this event, as his duty required, and which ought to be an inviolable maxim, he reserved the greatest part of it to himself, and had a ring made, which he always wore, wherein he was represented receiving Jugurtha from the hands of Bocchus ; and this ring he used ever after as his signet. But Marius was so highly exasperated at this kind of insult, that he could never forgive him; a circumstance that gave rise to the implacable hatred between these two Romans, which afterwards broke out with so much fury, and cost the republic so much blood.

c Marius entered Rome in triumph exhibiting such a spectacle to the Romans, as they could scarce believe they saw, when it passed before their eyes; I mean, Jugurtha in chains; that so formidable an enemy, during whose life they had not dared to flatter themselves with the hopes of being able to put an end to this war; so well was his courage sustained by stratagem and artifice, and his genius so fruitful in finding new expedients, even when his affairs were most desperate. We are told, that Jugurtha_ran distracted, as he was walking in the triumph; that after the ceremony was ended, he was thrown into prison; and that the lictors were

a Plut. in vit. Marii.

6 οἷα νίθωμλότιμα άρτι δόξης γεγευμένω, οὐκ ἤνεγκε μετρίως τὸ εὐ τύχημα. Plut. Præcept. reip. gerend. p. 806. c Plut. in vit. Marii.

so eager to seize his robe, that they rent it in several pieces, and tore away the tips of his ears, to get the rich jewels with which they were adorned. In this condition he was cast, quite naked, and in the utmost terrors, into a deep dungeon, where he spent six days in struggling with hunger and the fear of death, retaining a strong desire of life to his last gasp; an end, continues Plutarch, worthy of his wicked deeds, Jugurtha having been always of opinion, that the greatest crimes might be committed to satiate his ambition; ingratitude, perfidy, black treachery, and inhuman barbarity.

Juba, king of Mauritania, reflected so much honour on polite literature and the sciences, that I could not, without impropriety, omit him in the history of the family of Masinissa, to whom his father, who also was named Juba, was great grandson, and grandson of Gulussa. The elder Juba signalized himself in the war between Cæsar and Pompey, by his inviolable attachment to the party of the latter. He slew himself after the battle of Thapsus, in which his forces, and those of Scipio, were entirely defeated. Juba, his son, then a child, was delivered up to the conqueror, and was one of the most conspicuous ornaments of his triumph. It appears from history, that a noble education was bestowed upon Juba in Rome, where he imbibed such a variety of knowledge, as afterwards equalled him to the most learned among the Grecians. He did not leave that city till he went to take possession of his father's dominions a. Augustus restored them to him, when by the death of Mark Antony, the provinces of the empire were absolutely at his disposal. Juba, by the lenity of his government, gained the hearts of all his subjects; who out of a grateful sense of the felicity they had enjoyed during his reign, ranked him in the number of their gods. Pausanias speaksofa statue which the Athenians erected in his honour. It was indeed just, that a city, which had been consecrated in all ages to the muses, should give public testimonies of its esteem for a king, who made so bright a figure among the learned. b Suidas ascribes several works to this prince, of which only the fragments are now extant. He had written the history of Arabia; the antiquities of Assyria, and those of the Romans; the history of theatres, of painting and painters; of the nature and properties of different animals, of grammar, and similar subjects; a catalogue of all which is given in Abbe Sevin's short dissertation on the life and works of the younger Juba, whence I have extracted these few particulars.

& A. M. 3974. A. Rom. 719. Ant. J. C. 30.

b In voce 'lócas.

e Vol. IV. of the Memoirs of the Academy of Belles Lettres, p. 457.






This book will contain the history of the Assyrian empire, both of Nineveh and Babylon, the kingdom of the Medes, and the kingdom of the Lydians.



SECT. I.-Duration of that Empire.

THE Assyrian empire was undoubtedly one of the most powerful in the world. As to the length of its duration, two particular opinions have chiefly prevailed. Some authors, as Ctesias, whose opinion is followed by Justin, give it a du~ ration of 1,300 years: others reduce it to 520, of which number is Herodotus. The diminution, or rather the interruption of power, which happened in this vast empire, might possibly give occasion to this difference of opinion, and may perhaps serve in some measure to reconcile it.

The history of those early times is so obscure, the monuments which convey it down to us so contrary to each other, and the systems of the a moderns upon that matter so different, that it is difficult to lay down any opinon about it, as certain and incontestible. But where certainty is not to be had, I suppose a reasonable person will be satisfied with probability; and, in my opinion, a man can hardly be deceived, if he makes the Assyrian empire equal in antiquity with the city of Babylon, its capital. Now we learn from the holy Scripture, that this was built by Nimrod, who certainly was a great conqueror,and in all probability the first and most

a They that are curious to make deeper researches into this matter, may read the dissertations o: Abbe Banier, and M Freret upon the Assyrian empire, in the Memoirs of the Academy o Belles Lettres; or the first, see Tome 3, and for the other, Tome 5; as also what Father Tournemine has written upon this subject in his edition of Menochius.

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