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thousand men, escaped into Mauritania. However, the face of things was afterwards greatly changed.
a Masinissa, after his father's death, was often reduced to the brink of ruin; being driven from his kingdom by an usurper: pursued warmly by Syphax; in danger every instant of falling into the hands of his enemies; destitute of forces, money, and of every resource. He was at that time in alliance with the Romans, and the friend of Scipio, with whom he had had an interview in Spain. His misfortunes would not permit him to bring great succours to that general. When Lælius arrived in Africa, Masinissa joined him with a few horse, and from that time continued inviolably attached to the Roman interest. Syphax, on the contrary, having married the famous Sophonisba, daughter of Asdrubal, went over to the Carthaginians.
The fate of these two princes now changed once for all. Syphax lost a great battle, and was taken alive by the enemy. Masinissa, the victor, besieged Cirtha, his capital, and took it. But he met with a greater danger in that city than he had faced in the field; and this was Sophonisba, whose charms and endearments he was unable to resist. To se cure this princess to himself, he married her; but a few days after, he was obliged to send her a dose of poison, as her nuptial present; this being the only way left him to keep his promise with his queen, and preserve her from the power of the Romans.
This was a considerable error in itself, and one which must necessarily disoblige a nation that was so jealous of its authority but this young prince repaired it gloriously, by the signal services he afterwards did Scipio. We observed, that after the defeat and capture of Syphax, the dominions of this prince were bestowed upon him; and that the Carthaginians were forced to restore all he possessed before, This gave rise to the divisions we are now going to relate.
e A territory situated towards the sea-side, near the lesser Syrtis, was the subject of those contests. The country was very rich, and the soil extremely fruitful, a proof of which is, that the city of Leptis alone, which belonged to that territory, paid daily a talent to the Carthaginians by way of tribute. Masinissa had seized part of this territory. Each side dispatched deputies to Rome, to plead the cause of their superiors before the Senate. This assembly thought proper to send Scipio Africanus, with two other commissioners, to examine the controversy upon the spot. However, they returned without coming to any resolution, and left the business in the same uncertain state in which they had found it. Pos
a Id. l. xxix n. 29-34,
Id 1. xxx. n. 11, 12.
b Id. . xxix. n. 23.
d Liv. l. xxx n. 44.
e Id. 1. xxxiv. n. 62.
sibly they had acted in this manner by order of the senate, and had received private instructions to favour Masinissa, who was then possessed of the district in question.
Ten years after, new commissioners having been appointed to examine the same affair, they acted as the former had done, and left the whole undetermined.
After the like distance of time, the Carthaginians again brought their complaint before the senate, but with greater importunity than before. They represented, that besides the lands at first contested, Masinissa had, during the two preceding years, dispossessed them of upwards of seventy towns and castles. That their hands were bound up by that article of the last treaty, which forbade their making war upon any of the allies of the Romans; that they could no longer bear the insolence, the avarice, and cruelty of that prince that they were deputed to Rome with three requests, (one of which they desired might be immediately Complied with) viz. either to get orders to have the affair examined and decided by the senate; or, secondly, that they might be permitted to repel force by force, and defend themselves by arms; or lastly, that if favour was to prevail over justice, they then entreated the Romans to specify once for all, which of the Carthaginian lands they were desirous should be vested in Masinissa, that they, by this means, might hereafter know what they had to depend on; and that the Roman people would have some regard to them, at a time that this prince set no other bounds to his pretensions, than his insatiable avarice. The deputies concluded with beseeching the Romans, that if they had any cause of complaint against the Carthaginians since the conclusion of the last peace, that they themselves would punish them; and not give them up to the wild caprice of a prince, by whom their liberties were made precarious, and their lives insupportable. After ending their speech, being pierced with grief, they fell prostrate upon the earth, and burst into tears; a spectacle that moved all who were present to compassion, and raised a violent hatred against Masinissa. Gulussa, his son, who was then present, being asked what he had to reply, he answered, that his father had not given him any instructions, not knowing that any thing would be laid to his charge. He only desired the senate to reflect, that the circumstance which drew all this hatred upon him from the Carthaginians, was, the inviolable fidelity with which he had always been attached to the side of the Romans. The senate, after hearing both sides, answered, that they were inclined to do justice to either party to whom it might be due: that Gulussa should set out ini.
mediately with their orders to his father, who was thereby commanded to send immediately deputies with those of Carthage that they would do all that lay in their power to serve him, but not to the prejudice of the Carthaginians: that it was but just the ancient limits should be preserved; and that it was far from being the intention of the Romans, to have the Carthaginians dispossessed, during the peace, of those territories and cities which had been left them by the treaty. The deputies of both powers were then dismissed with the usual presents.
But all these assurances were but mere words. It is plain that the Romans did not once endeavour to satisfy the Carthaginians, or do them the least justice; and that they protracted the business, on purpose to give Masinissa time to establish himself in his usurpation, and weaken his enemies.
A new deputation was sent to examine the affair upon the spot, and Cato was one of the commissioners. On their arrival, they asked the parties if they were willing to abide by their determination. Masinissa readily complied. The Carthaginians answered, that they had a fixed rule to which they adhered, and that this was the treaty which had been concluded by Scipio, and desired that their cause might be examined with all possible rigour. They therefore could not come to any decision. The deputies visited all the country, and found it in a very good condition, especially the city of Carthage: and they were surprised to see it, after having been involved in such a calamity, again raised to so exalted a pitch of power and grandeur. The deputies, on their return, did not fail to acquaint the senate with this circumstance; and declared, Rome could never be in safety so long as Carthage should subsist. From this time, whatever affair was debated in the senate, Cato always added the following words to his opinion," and I conclude that Carthage ought "to be destroyed." This grave senator did not give himself the trouble to prove, that bare jealousy of the growing power of a neighbouring state is a warrant sufficient for destroying a city contrary to the faith of treaties. But Scipio Nasica, on the other hand, was of opinion, that the ruin of this city would draw after it that of their commonwealth; because that the Romans, having then no rival to fear, would quit the ancient severity of their manners, and abandon themselves to luxury and pleasures, the never-failing subverters of the most flourishing empires.
e In the meantime, divisions broke out in Carthage. The popular faction, being now become superior to that of the grandees and senators, sent forty citizens into banishment;
a Polyb p. 951.
6 A. M. 3848. A. Rom. 592. App. de bell. Pun. p. 37.
c App. p. 38.
and bound the people by an oath, never to suffer the least mention to be made of recalling those exiles. They withdrew to the court of Masinissa, who dispatched Gulussa and Micipsa, his two sons, to Carthage, to solicit their return. However, the gates of the city were shut against them, and one of them was closely pursued by Hamilcar, one of the generals of the republic. This gave occasion to a new war, and accordingly armies were levied on both sides. A battle was fought; and the younger Scipio, who afterwards ruined Carthage, was spectator of it. He had been sent from Lucullus in Spain, under whom Scipio then fought, to Masinissa, to desire some elephants from that monarch. During the whole engagement, he stood upon a neighbouring hill; and was surprised to see Masinissa, then 88 years of age, mounted (agreeably to the custom of his country) on a horse without a saddle; flying from rank to rank like a young officer, and sustaining the most arduous toils. The fight was very obstinate, and continued from morning till night, but at last the Carthaginians gave way. Scipio used to say afterwards, that he had been present at many battles, but at none with so much pleasure as at this; having never before beheld so formidable an army engage, without any danger or trouble to himself. And being very conversant in the writings of Homer, he added, that, till his time, there were but two more who had the pleasure of being spectators of such an action, viz. Jupiter from Mount Ida, and Neptune from Samothrace, when the Greeks and Trojans fought before Troy. I know not whether the sight of 100,000 men (for so many there were) butchering one another, can administer a real pleasure; or whether such a pleasure is consistent with the sentiments of humanity, so natural to mankind.
a The Carthaginians, after the battle was over, entreated Scipio to terminate their contests with Masinissa. Accordingly, he heard both parties, and the Carthaginians consented to yield up the territory of Emporium, which had been the first cause of the dispute, to pay Masinissa 200 talents of silver down, and 800 more, at such times as should be agreed. But Masinissa insisting on the return of the exiles, they did not come to any decision. Scipio, after having paid his com
a App. de bell. Pun 40.
b The Emporium, or Emporia, was a country of Africa, on the Lesser Syr tis, in which Leptis stood. No part of the Carthaginian dominions was more fruitful than this. Polybius, I. i. says, that the revenue that arose from this place was so considerable, that all their hopes were almost founded on it, iv άis To this was (viz. their revenues from Emporia) έχον τὰς μεγίσας ἐλπίδας owing their care and state-jealousy above mentioned, lest the Romans should sail beyond the Fair Promontory, that lay before Carthage; and become acquainted with a country, which might induce them to attempt the conquest of it.
pliments, and returned thanks to Masinissa, set out with the elephants, for which he had been sent.
a The king, immediately after the battle was over, had blocked up the enemy's camp, which was pitched upon a hill whither neither troops nor provisions would come to them. During this interval, there arrived deputies from Rome, with orders from the senate to decide the quarrel, in case the king should be defeated; otherwise, to leave it undetermined, and to give the king the strongest assurances of the continuation of their friendship; and they complied with the latter injunction. In the meantime, the famine daily increased in the enemy's camp, and to add to their calamity, it was followed by a plague, which made dreadful havoc. Being now reduced to the last extremity they surrendered to Masinissa, promising to deliver up the deserters, to pay him 5,000 talents of silver in 50 years, and restore the exiles, notwithstanding their oaths to the contrary. They all submitted to the ignominious ceremony of passing under the yoke, and were dismissed, with only one suit of clothes for each. Gulussa, to satiate his vengeance for the ill treatment, which, as we before observed, he had met with; sent out against them a body of cavalry, whom, from their great weakness, they could neither escape nor resist. So that of 58,000 men, very few returned to Carthage.
THE THIRD PUNIC WAR.
• The third Punic war, which was less considerable than either of the two former, with regard to the number and greatness of the battles, and its continuance, which was only four years, was still more remarkable with respect to the success and event of it, as it ended in the total ruin and destruction of Carthage.
d The inhabitants of this city, from their last defeat, knew what they might naturally fear from the Romans, from whom they had always met with the most rigorous treatment, as often as they had addressed them upon their disputes with Masinissa. To prevent the consequences of it, the Carthaginians, by a decree of the senate, impeached Asdrubal, general of the army, and Carthalo commandere of the auxiliary forces, as guilty of high treason, for being the authors of
a App. de bell. Pun. 40.
Ils furent tous passes sous le joug: Sub jugum missi; a kind of gallows (made by two forked sticks, standing upright) was erected, and a spear laid across, under which vanquished enemies were obliged to pass. Festus.
c A. M. 3855. A. Carth 697 A. Rom. 599. Ant J. C. 149.
d Appian p. 41, 42.
e The foreign forces were commanded by leaders of their respective nation!, who were all under the command of a Carthaginian officer, called by Appian Bonfagxe.