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army of fome that had been cavaliers, was taken to Whitehall, to anfwer to the charge. The Protector, on hearing the complaint avowed, is faid to have exclaimed, in a deriding manner, "What! would you have me prefer none but the godly? Here is Dick Ingoldfby, who can neither pray nor preach, and yet I will truft him before you all." As there are many proofs that the Protector was not an irreligious man, it may be supposed, that well knowing the cant and hypocrify of the times, he only meant, by the foregoing declaration, that he preferred one who had neither of thofe equivocal qualifications, to fuch as poffeffed them.

Those who are not influenced by prejudice or party, speak more favourably of him: they fay, "that he was a very worthy perfon, of an engaging nature, and religious difpofition, fhewing great refpect to the beft of perfons, both ministers and others." During the latter part of his life, it is well known that he attended divine worship regularly every Sunday; and though he had not all that zeal for religion which was the fashion of the times, he had real piety.

He affected none of that aufterity and



It has been thought by many, that the viceroy did not act with that vigour upon this occafion he ought to have done. Had he had refolution enough to have oppofed them at the beginning, he might eafily, it is fuppofed, have fuppreffed the tumults; and even in this ftage of the commotions, had he put himself at the head of his troops, and exerted his authority, the rioters must have laid down their arms.

The duke, however, took a more lenient courfe, and thought to win them by acts of kindness and popularity; he propofed several falutary regulations with regard to the price of provifions, and an abatement of the taxes; but it was now too late. The fury of the people was not in the leaft abated by any of his propofals; nothing but fire and defolation could fatisfy them, and they proceeded in their outrages.

Towards the evening they began to range themfelves under fome order and difcipline; and during the night they kept regular watch, and made every preparation for purfuing their plan of reform.

On the 8th, before it was clear day, Mafa-
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A tatter'd robe might vail a lordly mind:
In life's low walk, the hero oft we find;
Who bravely struggles for his country's good,
And feals his noble efforts with his blood.

AFTER many changes and revolutions,

the ancient kingdom of Naples fubmitted to the power of the House of Austria; and by their large and voluntary contributions, the inhabitants gave, from time to time, the most undoubted proofs of their fidelity and obedience to that illuftrious family.

But this liberality was exerted at an expence the people were ill able to bear. They were oppreffed with heavy and increasing exactions, till at length the neceffary provisions for the fupport of life grew dear. This be* History of Masaniello.


got difcontent; tumults and infurrections followed; which were attended with murder and bloodshed, and all thofe outrages that are the fure confequences of popular fury and diftraction.

Philip the Fourth, king of Spain, of whofe dominions Naples conftituted a part, experienced no small share of this generosity from the Neapolitans; and in the year 1647, it was proposed by government to present him with a further donative. Philip was fenfible of their affection; but those who made the offer, did not confider the inability of the people. All kinds of commodities being already taxed, it was difficult to contrive a method whereby to raise the money. So that they were obliged, in the prefent neceffity, to lay a gabel (or tax) upon every fort of fruit; by which the common people were deprived of their usual nourishment and fupport, and reduced to the lowest misery and diftrefs.

This gabel was collected with severity for feven months; but it grew at last so insupportable, that the inhabitants of every part of the kingdom determined to bear the burden no longer, and to get rid not only of Dd 4 this,

this, but of all the other impofts. And their defign was attended with fuccefs, beyond their most fanguine expectations. There are certain limits fixed by nature in the mind of man, beyond which oppreffion becomes intolerable; heavy loads and exactions then beget defpair, and oppofition, even at the hazard of fortune and death, enfues.

The city of Naples was extremely populous; and as many families were undone by the weight of the taxes, particularly by that on fruit, whenever the Duke d'Arcas, their viceroy, went out from his palace, he was furrounded by multitudes, who made known to him the hardships they fuffered, and fupplicated for relief. This not availing, they one day peremptorily demanded a release from the most burthenfome taxes, and threatened him with having recourfe to desperate means, if their demand was not complied with. The viceroy was fo terrified at these threats, that he promised them to take off the gabel, and returned, not without apprehenfions of the confequences, to his palace. But being naturally indolent, and unfixed in his refolutions, he neglected to do any thing in the affair, thinking it would fubfide of itfelf.

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