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NINETEENTH VICEROY.

him in the government,43 and then turned his attention to his duties as bishop and visitador." The cathedral of Puebla, which had been commenced in the middle of the preceding century, was completed,15 the viceroy making a donation of 15,000 pesos, and obtaining within four years subscriptions amounting to 150,000 pesos.

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The building was consecrated on the 18th of April 1649, and until the completion of the cathedral in Mexico was the finest church edifice in New Spain."7 More than a hundred thousand persons were confirmed; the college of San Pedro y San Pablo was founded, with a library of some six thousand volumes; the hospital de la Concepcion for orphans was established; and many other charitable acts" mony to the zeal of this worthy prelate.

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In October 1642 the nineteenth viceroy of New

43 These Instrucciones, as they were generally termed, should by order of the crown be given by every vacating viceroy to his successor, and were generally rather a résumé of the condition of the country, with suggestions for the best government, than what the title implied. Those of Palafox to Salvatierra, contained in Morfi, Col. Doc., MS., 7-46, reveal a very thorough understanding of the social and political state of affairs in New Spain at that time, and embrace nearly all the important points which then might come under consideration. The character of their author readily accounts for certain stress laid on ecclesiastical cooperation.

**His residencia was not taken until 1652, and though he had created many enemies no charges were made. 'No resultó... cargo, ni culpa alguna

ni huuo Demanda, Querella, ni Capitulo.' The council of the Indies published the sentence on August 8, 1652. Satisfacion al Memorial, 31-2; Palafox, Obras, xii. 465–7; xiii. 106-14; Guijo, Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 1st ser., i. 215-16.

15 A royal cedula of January 19, 1640, had directed him to hasten the completion of the building.

46 Rosende, in Palafox, Obras, xiii. 57-60, followed by Touron, Hist. Gen. Amérique, vii. 326-7, places the amount at 400,000 pesos; but the former's statement probably originated in the desire of extolling the glory of his patron. Gonzalez Dávila, Vetancurt, and Calle give the statements adopted in the text. Teatro Ecles., i. 99; Trat. Mex., 52; Mem. y Not., 66. García says that altogether 333,133 pesos 1 real 11 granos were spent. Soc. Mex. Geog., Bol., viii. 175.

A description of the cathedral, which contained many costly paintings and sculptures, and is said then to have been equal, if not superior, to the finest in Spain, is given by Rosende in Palafox, Obras, xiii. 55-61; also in Vetancert, Trat. Mex., 48-9.

48 Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., 52. Gonzalez Dávila says 60,000 from 1640 to 1645. Teatro Ecles., i. 99.

49 The bishop also established a nunnery, aided in the repairing of more

than 50 churches and hospitals, and in the construction of convents.

HIST. MEX., VOL. III. 8

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Spain, García Sarmiento de Sotomayor, conde de Salvatierra and marqués de Sabroso,50 arrived at Vera Cruz, and in the following month took charge of the government. During his administration an expedition was despatched to the coast of Lower California, in charge of Pedro Porter y Casanate. Troops were enlisted, and a large number of persons made ready to embark on board the fleet; for it was said that the pearl fisheries of that region were second only to those discovered by Vasco Nuñez de Balboa. When all was in readiness the vessels were destroyed by fire. A second expedition was fitted out and set sail a few years later, but resulted in failure. In 1648 Casanate returned to report to the viceroy that he had failed even to discover any spot suitable for a settlement.

During this year Salvatierra was appointed to the viceroyalty of Peru.52 His conduct meets with the approval of the chroniclers of his period, although the condition of affairs during his régime was far from prosperous. Spain was engaged in external wars and the suppression of internal revolts; the attention of her sovereign was concentrated almost exclusively on European affairs, and though cédula followed cédula in quick succession they contained little save demands for money. Throughout the provinces commerce and

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50 Some authors say Sobroso; Zamacois styles him marqués de Sonora. Hist. Mej., v. 334.

51 Vetancurt, Trat. Mex., 14, and Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 16, say it was on the 23d of November. Lorenzana, Hist. N. Esp., 23, and Guijo, Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex., série i. 6, respectively place it on the 13th and 15th.

52 Cogolludo, Hist. Yuc., 701-2, says Salvatierra was somewhat reluctant to deliver up the government; but this is not probable, as the viceroyalty of Peru was generally held in higher esteem than that of New Spain. On the 12th of June, 1648, his residencia was begun, and though later discontinued by order of the king, was resumed in July 1652. Guijo, Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 1st series, i. 10, 15, 223. In June 1660 news arrived at Mexico that Salvatierra, after serving his term as viceroy of Peru, became temporarily insane, and died shortly after his recovery. Guijo, in Id., 443. Vetancurt says he died at Cartagena when on his way to Spain.

53 The only serious charge brought against him was that he caused the Indians to serve as slaves to the friars and to pay their tribute in kind. The king disapproved of the measure, and in 1644 forbade it. Indians were to be exempted from all imposts, and from servitude, unless they were paid and volunteered to do the work. Strict compliance with previous cédulas bearing on the subject was enjoined. Maltratamiento de Indios, MS., no. 5, 1-2.

SOCIAL AND PHYSICAL DISASTER.

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industries languished, and a crowd of quarrelsome ecclesiastics and indolent officials gathered in the wealth of the community. Flood and earthquake were among the causes that made the term of Salvatierra's administration memorable as one fraught with disaster to the people of Mexico.54

54 A town named after the viceroy was founded in Guanajuato, and in the following year declared a city. Quintana, in Soc. Mex. Geog., Bol., 2da ép. i. 579. The ground, an immense tract of land, had been given by a certain Alderete under condition that a yearly rent of 2,000 pesos be paid to him and his descendants in honor of the donation. Romero, Not. Mich., 223-5. Salvatierra was a man of simple manners, and much averse to the burdensome etiquette connected with his position. He frequently gave cause of offence to the oidores by his unceremonious conduct, and sometimes incurred severe rebukes from the crown.

CHAPTER VI.

JESUIT LABORS AND STRIFES.

1600-1700.

AND

THE FIELD OF JESUIT LABORS-THE FIRST DISPUTES WITH THE CHURCH OF PUEBLA-ATTITUDE OF PALAFOX-RELATIONS BETWEEN THE BISHOP THE JESUITS-OPEN HOSTILITY-APPOINTMENT OF JUDGESPALAFOX SENTENCED-HE RETALIATES HIS FLIGHT FROM PUEBLATHE VICTORIOUS SOCIETY-THE BISHOP RETURNS GENERAL REPRI MANDS FROM SPAIN-THE JESUITS DEFEATED IN ROME-REVIVAL AND CONCLUSION OF THE QUARREL-LIFE OF PALAFOX IN SPAIN-HIS DEATH-DISPUTES WITH THE SOCIETY ABOUT TITHES-THE JESUITS AT THE CLOSE OF THE CENTURY.

DURING the rule of Viceroy Salvatierra there occurred a bitter dispute between the regular and secular clergy, and one which though carried on only in Mexico and Puebla agitated almost all New Spain, absorbed the attention of the governments at Mexico and Madrid, and became a frequent subject for discussion and consultation to the holy see itself. On one side was the able, energetic, and strong-minded bishop of Puebla, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, temporary viceroy, archbishop elect of Mexico, and visitador general of New Spain. His adversaries were the Jesuits, who were not second to him in ability, whose ranks were thoroughly organized, who had the command of wealth wherewith to secure friends, and whose influence over the people was fully equal to that of the prelate. The early labors of Palafox have already been related; and in order that the means at the disposal of his antagonists may be better understood, I shall give a brief sketch of the field

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worked by the Jesuits since the beginning of the seventeenth century.

The operations of the society extended not only to the capital and its neighborhood, but to northern regions. They partly held possession of Durango, Sonora, and Sinaloa, and from those points extended their missions into the unknown territory of California. Occasionally efforts were made in some districts by other orders, and by the secular clergy, to deprive them of their predominating influence; but by ably conducted intrigues, or even open resistance against episcopal orders which they regarded as encroaching upon their privileges, they contrived to maintain their claims. With equal success they always regained the ground temporarily lost by revolts of the natives, and at the close of the seventeenth century were steadily extending their dominion toward the north.1

At the same time, while their efforts were chiefly in that direction, they lost no opportunity to establish houses and colleges in other provinces, well aware that if the education of the young could be brought under their control their influence would be greatly extended. Thus arose their establishment at Zacatecas, and later the one at Guadalajara,2 both of which became among the most prominent in the country. In the adjoining province of San Luis Potosí, there had been but two fathers during the early part of the century; nevertheless their work was so successful that in 1623 a. college was founded, and notwithstanding some temporary opposition it prospered. A marked triumph was moreover secured by the order in Guanajuato, when the city, in 1616, chose San Ignacio de Loyola

1 For a detailed account of the Jesuit labors in the unknown region, I refer the reader to Hist. North Mex. States, i., passim, this series.

2 Both were erected with money mainly derived from donations; that of Zacatecas was begun in 1616; the other of Guadalajara was commenced in 1659, but the foundation did not take place till about 40 years later. Alege, Hist. Comp. Jesus, ii. 81-2, 416; iii. 64-9, 91-2; Jalisco, Notas, 16-17, 171.

Sinaloa, Mem. Hist., MS., 983-91. Voluntary gifts of considerable amount were at first offered; later the inhabitants made a donation of a hermitage which had been founded under the name of Santa Veracruz, or San Sebastian. Alegre, ii. 141-2, 152–3.

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