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1659.52 His funeral took place with the ceremonies becoming his rank; the corpse was buried in the principal chapel, and an elaborate tombstone with a eulogy of his character placed over his grave. Thus ended in an insignificant town of Spain the carcer of a man who had been vested with the highest civil and ecclesiastical powers ever conferred by the sovereign on any of his vassals in the New World. After his death miracles were attributed to him, and these, in addition to his eminent virtues, were made the grounds. of a request for his canonization. The demand was supported by testimony from Spain and the Indies, and favored by the king, the viceroy, and the ecclesiastical dignitaries. A congregation of cardinals having in 1691 discussed the matter and examined his writings reported favorably, and the prescribed proceedings were instituted. Intrigues in Rome and Madrid by the Jesuits and the descendants of the duke of Escalona frustrated, however, all efforts. made at this period and at a later date.


52 The news reached Mexico in May of the following year, but apparently created no impression. Guijo, Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex., série i., i. 442.

53 Palafox was a prolific and able author, his first literary attempts having been made in 1618. His writings are not only on spiritual, but on historical, judicial, and other subjects, the greater part being written in New Spain. The most important are the Vida Interior, Varon de Desseos, la...Vniversidad de Mexico, and the different memorials bearing on his dispute with the Jesuits, and his letters to Pope Innocent X. Some of his works have been lost; the first general edition, comprising nearly all that had been written by him, and including the manuscripts which he had left to the barefooted Carmelites, was published between 1659 and 1671 in eight tomes, to which another was added, containing his biography by Antonio Gonzalez Rosende. Another edition was issued in 1762, by order and under the supervision of the Carmelite friars of Madrid, consisting of 13 volumes in 15 tomes in folio. Besides these editions there have appeared, before and after that time, several publications of single works, chiefly in Spanish, but also in other languages.

54 In 1726 and 1767 Ribera, Gobernantes, i. 151-2, says the beatification was pronounced on August 16, 1767; but he has evidently misinterpreted Lorenzana, in Concilios Prov., 1555-65. See also Papeles de Jesuitas, MS., no. 8, 8-25, 30. The fact that in the second half of the eighteenth century proceedings for the beatification of Palafox were continued, explains the partiality manifested by nearly all his biographers and by the leading chroniclers; they were either friends or foes, and therefore overrated his virtues or exaggerated his defects. The most unbiassed but unfortunately rather fragmentary account is certainly that given by the contemporary Guijo in his Diario, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 1st ser., i. 6 et seq. The information furnished by him, together with that contained in the memorials and letters of Palafox, and

The question of tithes, which had occasioned the unseemly dispute between the church dignitaries of Puebla and the society of Jesus, had been a source of contention for years before. As early as 1624 complaints were filed in the India Council against the different orders, demanding the payment of tithes from all the produce of plantations and increase of stock. The claim was made by the royal fiscal and supported by the secular church, based on the obligation of the crown to provide, if necessary, the means for the performance of divine service. On the other hand the religious orders pleaded their statutes and fueros, the validity of which was disputed on the ground of the cession of the tithes to the crown.65 The first judgment was given in 1655 in favor of the fiscal; both parties appealed, the fiscal demanding that the tithes be collected at an earlier date than the one provided in the judgment, and the orders, among whom the Jesuits were most conspicuous, clamoring for a transfer of the law-suit to the holy see.

On the 16th of June 1657 the judgment was ratified by a new decision, ordering their payment after that date to the king or the secular church. All the orders submitted, except the Jesuits, who presented protests to the sovereign, but without avail. On November 4, 1658, and December 31, 1662, orders were trans

counterbalanced by the prejudiced statements of Alegre, gives doubtless the best means to arrive at an impartial conclusion. Still the latter authority, in his list. Comp. Jesus, ii. 274-356, passim, has almost been implicitly followed by Bustamante, in Caro, Tres Siglos, ii. 20–33, Ribera, Gobernantes, i. 144-51, and Sosa, Episcop. Mex., 83-90. Lorenzana, in Concilios Prov., 1555–65, 219, 251-69, as is natural, defends the policy of his predecessor, of whom he makes a glowing panegyric. So does Touron, a Dominican friar, in his Hist. Gén. Amérique, vii. 316-86, viii. 1-100, passim. Vetancurt and Gonzalez Dávila, who lived at the time of the dispute, pass it by in silence, but otherwise praise the saintly character of the bishop. Zamacois, in Hist. Méj., v. 336– 47, 349-50, is unusually reticent in assigning the causes which led to the dispute, and also abrupt in speaking of its conclusion.

L5 Pope Alexander VI. by a bull of Nov. 16, 1501, made a donation of all the tithes to the crown of Spain, in remuneration for the expenses connected with the conquest of the American colonies. Diezmos de Ind., no. 4, 5-6. A royal cédula of June 12, 1625, ordered that all bulls issued by the holy see to evade the payment of tithes, and sent to New Spain without the king's permission, be collected and forwarded to the India Council. Montemayor, Semarios, 49.


mitted that the judgment take effect, and the archbishop and cathedral chapters invested with the requisite authority. Nevertheless execution was delayed for years, owing to the difficulties which arose as to the valuation of property, and several times new orders, reaffirming previous cédulas, were issued in Spain. In Puebla the Jesuits contrived to delay payment till 1673, when after fruitless appeals to the audiencia, and after being placed under excommunication, they finally submitted. After that no other difficulties arose till 1732, when investigation showed that frauds had been committed by the society in their statements of the revenue derived from their property.50


Notwithstanding the many disputes in which the society had become involved, the ranks of their partisans continually increased, and new establishments gave evidence of the sympathy which the order enjoyed. Licenses having been obtained in Spain for the founding of a novitiate at Mexico in support of that of Tepotzotlan, donations of money were made for this purpose in 1626, and in 1642 it was completed and dedicated to Santa Ana. Subsequent discussions with one of the founders caused its abandonment, till 1672,5 when Andrés de Tapia y Carbajal, a very wealthy man and one friendly to the order, endowed the establishment with sufficient means for the maintenance of twenty novices and the necessary fathers and lay-brothers. On the 19th of November the society took possession of it, changing the name to that of San Andrés.

Several brotherhoods were also founded by the order, that of the Immaculate Conception being the most prominent, and including ecclesiastics, laymen,

56 Details on this subject are contained in a number of memorials and pamphlets, forming a collection under the title Diezmos de Indias. Some of the documents are of Jesuit origin; others have been written by the secular church and their partisans. Those numbered from one to five have been consulted in this chapter; the rest bear exclusively on later disputes.

5 Lazcano, Vida del P. Oviedo, 56-7, says it was in 1676.

and students of the higher grades. Recognized by the general in Rome in 1651, the number of its members increased rapidly, and a few years later persons of the highest rank, including a viceroy of New Spain, were eager to be admitted.53

Before the close of the seventeenth century the society had still further spread its influence by holding missions throughout the provinces. Their attempts were successful, and nowhere more so than in Mexico, through which territory fathers Perez and Zappa passed from town to town, and made numberless converts, miracles being wrought, as the chroniclers report, to attest the saintly character of the Jesuits.59

58 Minute records as to its organization and progress are given in Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, ii. 259-62; Morfi, Col. Doc., MS., app., i. 47.

59 Lengthy descriptions of these revivals are given in Perez and Zappa, Rel., 61-79.





IT had been the usual policy with the court of Spain, to appoint the archbishop of Mexico as viceroy ad interim, whenever a sudden vacancy occurred in that office, but on the promotion of the duke of Salvatierra an exception was made, and, as we have seen, the chief magistracy with the title of governor was given to Márcos de Torres y Rueda, then bishop of Yucatan.1

He arrived in November 1647, and remained in Tacuba till February 1648, when, upon the notice that a vessel sent for him from Peru had arrived at Acapulco, he repaired to Mexico to receive the gov

1I have before me a copy of the cédula, appointing him as governor, and dated July 8, 1647. Ordenes de la Corona, MS., ii. 198-9. He was born in Almazan in Spain, and, when a student at Salamanca, won the degree of licenciate in arts among 106 competitors. After holding several important ecclesiastical offices, he was presented to the bishopric of Yucatan in 1644. Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Ecles., i. 219. In November 1646 he took possession of his see, the greater part of which he visited in person, attempting on that occasion to introduce several innovations, which appear to have been for the purpose of filling his own pockets. Cogolludo mentions his meanness to the captain who brought him the news of his appointment to the viceroyalty; auduno tan corto con el Capitan, que dió harto que dezir?' Cogollvdo, Hist. Yuc., 701.

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