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Augustinian lay-friars did not shrink from assassinating the former provincial of their order.

It was perhaps the viceroy's undue interference in ecclesiastical matters that excited the enmity of the archbishop. During his administration the same. ridiculous dispute arose which had occurred during the régime of his predecessor, concerning the precedence of the attendants at the procession of corpus christi. Neither would yield the point, and the matter was settled only by an agreement that neither the pages of the viceroy nor those of the archbishop should assist.20 The latter, named Mateo Sagade Bugueiro, was a man of rather haughty character, and ere long new difficulties arose between him and the representative of the crown, occasioned by the controversy of the former with the commissary-general of the holy crusade. The archbishop also publicly accused, the viceroy of withholding and intercepting his correspondence with Spain, but finally a reconciliation was effected, and after that time a better understanding prevailed.

The religious zeal of the viceroy 23 well nigh cost him his life. It was his custom each afternoon to pay a visit to the cathedral, then in course of completion, in order to inspect the progress made during the day, and afterward to attend vespers in one of the chapels. While kneeling at prayer on the evening of the 12th of March 1660, a soldier named Manuel Ledesma y

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2 Similar difficulties continued to disturb the good understanding between the viceroys and the archbishops, although royal cédulas had clearly fixed the jurisdiction to which either of them was entitled, their tenor being essentially favorable to the viceroys. In later years under the rule of Mancera an outbreak of these old hostilities was prevented merely by the duke's diplomacy, and the modesty and genuine christian spirit of the then archbishop Alonso de Cuevas. Dávalos, Mancera, Instrucciones, in Doc. Inéd., xxi. 471-2.

27 He was born in San Pedro de San Roman in Galicia, and had previously held the offices of canon of the churches of Astorga and Toledo. Concilios Prov., 1555-65, 220. Panes, Vir., MS., 101-2, calls him Mateo de Yaga, and says he was born in Pontevedro in Galicia. He was consecrated in Mexico the 25th of July, 1656. Guijo, Diario, 362.

28 He assisted at the festivals of the churches and made liberal contributions toward the completion of the cathedral. Guijo states that a royal cédula arrived in May 1655 ordering that the building be completed as socn as possible. Diario. 309.

THREATENED ASSASSINATION.

Robles entered the chapel and gave him several blows with the flat of his sword. The viceroy sprang to his feet, and placing the prie-dieu between himself and his assailant, meanwhile clutching with his right hand at his sword, exclaimed, "What mean you?" "To kill you," was the answer. At that moment the treasurer of the cathedral came to the duke's assistance and was soon followed by others. The would-be assassin was overpowered, and the duke after finishing his devotions returned to his palace. A trial was held the same evening by the military auditor, but considering the grave character of the crime, the audiencia ordered that the prisoner be brought before their court. At the same time a resolution was passed that there should be no rest until the law was vindicated.30

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During the whole night the depositions of witnesses were taken, corroborating the attempt to murder, but they added little to the contradictory confession of the accused, who in one place gives as a reason a supposed offence suffered from the viceroy, while in another he states that his sole purpose was to perpetuate his name.31 There is little doubt his mind was deranged; he could easily have killed the viceroy had he been so disposed; but as it was a great man who had been frightened, his judges were determined not to recognize the fact; the appointment of an advocate for the accused was but for form, and no time. was granted him to prepare his defence. At seven o'clock next morning the verdict was rendered; the

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Matarlo y que no se diga misa.' Copia de la Causa Criminal, in Registro Trimestre, 289. Voto á Cristo, q le he de matar,' says the viceroy in his letter of March 16, 1660, to the king, adding me dió de cuchilladas y estocadas, en las espaldas y riñones.' The latter assertion, notwithstanding its source, is exaggerated, as proved by the depositions of the witnesses during the trial. Carta, in Vir. Instruc., MS., 1st ser. no. 24, 1.

30 Hasta tanto se dé jurídica y competente satisfaccion á ejemplar tan atroz, no se deje la mano de las diligencias.' Copia de la Causa Criminal,

277.

31 Guijo, Diario, 439-40, asserts that he was submitted to torture; but this is doubtful; as the minutes of the trial would hardly have concealed the application of a measure which then was considered quite legal in order to obtain a confession.

criminal was condemned to be dragged through the streets, and thence taken to the gibbet. His head and right hand were to be cut off and exposed, the former on the main square, the latter, together with his sword, in front of the door of the cathedral where the crime had been committed. Three hours later the tribunals and loyal inhabitants of Mexico had the satisfaction of witnessing the execution of the sentence, the corpse, feet upwards, remaining exhibited on the gallows till late in the afternoon.33

Public demonstrations of joy and processions, arranged by the archbishop and the religious corporations, celebrated the escape of the viceroy from death.**

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A few months later Alburquerque was informed that the conde de Baños had been appointed his successor, and that he himself was promoted to the viceroyalty of Sicily.35 At the same time the archbishop was recalled, and both set sail from Vera Cruz in May 1661. In September the duke surrendered the reins of power to the new viceroy" at Santa Ana, as was the custom. His residencia was begun at the same time by Ginés Morote, but difficulties between the latter and the audiencia prevented its completion until 1662, when it was concluded by the oidor Fran

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Que sea arrastrado á la cola de dos caballos metido en un ceron...y en la horca... ahorcado hasta que naturalmente mucra.' Copia de la Causa Criminal, 301-2.

33 The culprit did not repent of his crime.

No pudieron reducirlo á que se confesara, ni á que invocase el nombre de Jesus. Guijo, Diario, 440. The viceroy in his letter to the king expresses regret, and adds that both in writing and verbally he pardoned him for this and the other life.' Carta, in Vir. Instrucc., MS., 1st ser, no. 24, 2.

3 For details of this event see Copia de la Causa Criminal, in Registro Trim., 265-305; Guijo, Diario, 439-40; Carta, in Vir. Instrucc., MS., 1st ser. no. 24, 1-3.

35 Guijo says he was made general of the fleets intended to operate against the Portuguese. Diario, 442.

36 Lacunza, Disc. Hist., xxxv. 501-2, speaks of the removal of both as caused by the king's displeasure with their conduct, fueron muy ricos, aunque con el deshonor consiguiente.' There is not the slightest reason for such a statement, and their later career indicates plainly the contrary, Buguerio being presented to the see of Leon, one of the greatest in Spain, and Alburquerque, as already stated, being made viceroy of Sicily.

37 During his term of office he made many improvements in the viceregal

palace.

RETURN TO SPAIN.

cisco Valles.38 In the mean time the duke had left for his native land, carrying with him the sympathy and good wishes of all the people of New Spain.

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GULF OF MEXICO.

38 The visitador fixed the bond at 180,000 pesos, but was overruled by the oidores, who reduced the amount to 50,000 pesos notwithstanding the protests of Morote.

CHAPTER VIII.

YUCATAN.

1601-1708.

AN UNEVENTFUL PERIOD-GOOD RULERS-MARSHAL CARLOS DE LUNA Y ARELLANO-THE GOVERNMENT OF THE TOWNS-THE MONARCH AS A MENDICANT-GOVERNOR JUAN DE VARGAS-HIS MALEADMINISTRATION— THE LICENTIATE CARVAJAL TAKES HIS RESIDENCIA-INDIAN REVOLTSTHE SUCCESSION OF RULERS-CAMPECHE FORTIFIED-SOBERANIS AND MARTIN DE URSÚA-MORE DISSENSIONS-EXCOMMUNICATION OF SOBERANIS-CONCERNING THE CONQUEST OF THE ITZAS-CONDUCT OF URSÚA JUSTIFIED, AND HIS SUBSEQUENT PROMOTION-HIS QUALITIES AS A SOLDIER THE CAUSE OF HIS PREFERMENT.

DURING the latter half of the seventeenth century, it will be remembered, the governors of Yucatan were constantly at variance with the church,' and unseemly quarrels between the secular and ecclesiastical authorities were prevalent almost from the time that the custodian Villapando built at Mani' the first convent founded in the Maya peninsula. On August 11, 1604, the marshal Cárlos de Luna y Arrellano3 took possession of the government, and although his reign lacked none of the usual strifes, as well with the city council as with the bishop and the secular and regular clergy, his qualities as an honest ruler and the progress which the province made during his administration were fully recognized. The strongest proof of his rectitude is that, although no failure of crops

1In Hist. Mex., ii. 428 et seq., this series, the conquest of Yucatan is related, and on pages 648-654 of the same volume is a brief sketch of the history of this province during the latter half of the seventeenth century.

2 About 1550.

The author of Datos Biográficos, in Cartas de Indias, 791-2, says his Christian name was Tristan and that of his father Carlos.

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