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Prov., 1555 y 1565 (ed. Mex. 1769), 218, passim; Florencia, Hist. Prov. Comp. de Jesus, 174-6, 232; Medina, Crón. S. Diego, 12, 27, 162-6, 240-1, 251–5; Vireyes de Mex., MS., 1-3; Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., 14-16, 25-6, 35-8, 52-3; Cogollvdo, Hist. Yucathan, 215, passim; Villagutierre, Hist. Conq. Itza, 165–7, 190-2, 437-46; Ordenes de la Corona, MS., i. 7-11, 38, 182; ii. 198-221; iv. 2-8; vii. 7, 62-3; Col. Doc. Inéd., xxi. 440, 466, 471; Espinosa, Chron. Apost., 260-86; Palafox y Mendoza, Carta al Papa, 1647, 1–38; Id., Carta del Venerab., 47-401; Id., Obras, xi.-xiii., passim; Id., Venerab. Senor, passim; Id., Vie du Venerab., passim; Reales Cédulas, MS., 148-9; Doc. Hist. Mex., série i. tom. i., passim; Id., série i. tom. ii., passim; Id., série ii. tom. vi. 5-29; Papeles de Jesuitas, MS., 1-17; Dávila Padilla, Hist. Fend. Mex., 1-14, 29, 45-62; Disturbios de Frailes, MS., 129-43; Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbis, 355, 440-1, 457-8, 479; Recop. de Ind., i. 212, 339; ii. 178; Figueroa, Vindicias, MS., 56, 70; Montemayor, Svmarios, 10-11, 91; Doc. Ecles. Mex., MS., i. 2; ii. 13-14; v. 1-34; Ancona, Hist. Yuc., ii. 239-326; Castillo, Dicc. Hist., 18, passim; Soc. Mex. Geog., Bol., viii. 543-4; Id., 2da ép., iv. 166-7; Monumentos Domin. Esp., MS., 15, passim; Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii., passim; Robles, Diario, ii., passim; Correal, Voyage (ed. Paris), i. 46–64; Id. (ed. Amsterdam), i. 52-73; Juarros, Compendio, 282-3; Id., Guat., i. 284; Liceo Mex., ii. 171-3, 186-7, 201-7, 222-3, 254-7, 283-357; Guijo, Diario, ii., passim; Laet, Am. Descript., 271-6; Sosa, Episcop. Mex., 71-141; Zamacois, Hist. Mej., iv. 169, 553; v. 328-432; Alaman, Disert., iii. 28-38, 184-5; Mayer's Mex. Aztec, i. 198-213; Touron, Hist. Gen., vii. 309-86; viii. 1-188; Lucunza, Discursos Hist., no. xxxiv. 492; xxxv. 501-3; Bustamante, Efemérides, i., passim; Id., Defensa, 27; Granados, Tardes Am., 341-2, 386-95; Sammlung, Aller Reisebech, xiii. 500-7; Museo, Mex., i. 49-133; iii. 230-3; Wilson's Mex. and its Religion, 296; Vidal, Vida de Amaña, passim; Registro Yucateco, i. 265-305, 354-6, 389-91, 449-56; ii. 73-6, 116-17, 121-31, 143–5, 329-43; Gallo, Hombres Ilust., ii. 353-72; Fancourt's Hist. Yuc., 223-7; Prior's All the Voys., 57; Müller, Reisen en Mex., iii. 192; Robertson's Hist. Am., ii. 908-9; Velasquez, Carta, 1-31; Oviedo, Vida, passim; Dicc. Univ., i. 293, 304, passim; ii. 97, 252, 304, 352, 559-60; iii. 206 et seq.; iv. 171-2, 776, 790; v. 143, 183, 225; viii. 99, 129-34, 138-9, 149, 237-40, 333-4, 511-12, 571-2, 607; ix. 143, passim; x. 368 et seq.; Barbachano, Mem. Camp., 10-12; Alvarez, Estudios Hist., iii. 221-63; Dampier's Voy., ii. pt. ii. 9-39, 41-129; Stephens' Yuc., ii. 194-5; Arroniz, Biog. Mex., 136-8, 195-7; Id., Hist. y Cron., 88, 110; Darien, Defence, 11-13; Id., Vindication, 149-60; Zerecero, Rev. Mex., 528; Navarrete, Relac. Peregrino, ii. 30-1; iii. 27-33; Id., Tratad. Hist., 295-6; La Cruz, vii. 637; Pap. Var., clxix., passim; clxxi. 27 et seq.; Domenech, Hist. Mex., i. 276; Rivera, Gobernantes de Mex., i. 127-251; Diario Mex., vii. 7; Nuevo Mex., Doc. Hist., MS., 1199-1200; Rivera, Hist. Jalapa, i. 82-97; Ribera, Sentencia, passim; Lazcano, Vida del P. Oviedo, 17 et seq.

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CHAPTER X.

THE SACK OF VERA CRUZ, AND OTHER PIRATICAL RAIDS.

1680-1686.

THE CORSAIRS IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND NEW SPAIN-LAGUNA APPOINTED VICEROY-VAN HORN THE SEA ROVER-THE PIRATES RESOLVE TO ATTACK VERA CRUZ-THE CORSAIR LORENCILLO A CLEVER STRATAGEMVERA CRUZ SURPRISED BY BUCCANEERS-THE INHABITANTS IMPRISONED IN THE CHURCHES-AND KEPT FOR THREE DAYS WITHOUT FOOD OR WATER-THE CAPTIVES TAKEN TO THE ISLAND OF SACRIFICIOS-DEPARTURE OF THE CORSAIRS-DIVISION OF THE BOOTY-NEWS OF THE RAID RECEIVED IN MEXICO-FURTHER OPERATIONS OF THE FREEBOOTERS -DAMPIER AND OTHERS IN THE SOUTH SEA-END OF LAGUNA'S ADMINISTRATION.

BETWEEN the years 1680 and 1687, it will be remembered, the principal towns of Central America that lay near the shores of the South Sea were continually infested by pirates. The settlements on the North Sea had been so frequently sacked that few of them contained sufficient wealth to tempt the freebooters, with the exception of Cartagena, which was too strongly fortified to fall an easy prey. Nevertheless they were not exempt from attack. In August 1682 four French vessels entered the harbor of Portobello and rescued a number of their countrymen who were detained there as prisoners. From a negro slave on board the squadron the governor ascertained that fifteen French vessels had arrived at Martinique with three thousand persons on board, the purpose of the expedition being the colonization of Darien. In Nicaragua news was received that two thousand filibusters were assembled at the same point, intending to make a raid on Panamá. Vera Cruz and other

parts of New Spain were also threatened, and the marqués de Laguna,' who took office in November 1680, at once made preparations for defence; the militia were called out; the principal harbors were strongly fortified and garrisoned, and the armada de Barlovento was refitted and ordered to cruise off the coast of Tierra Firme.

But at this period corsairs ceased not to harass the Spaniards on land and sea. During the absence of the settlers they made sudden raids on the coast, sacked the towns, and carried off the cattle, thus causing many thriving colonies to be abandoned. Hovering on the shores of New Spain, they lay concealed in their light swift craft behind some point or reef, whence on the appearance of a treasure ship they darted like hawks on their prey. Laying their vessels athwart the Spaniard's bow they raked her deck with musketry, then pulled alongside, and dagger in hand swarmed over the bulwarks. Rarely did they fail to secure their prize, and often the Spaniards made no defense; the pirates finding them on their knees in supplication to the virgin and the saints, who sadly failed them in their emergencies.

In consequence of these depredations the viceroy gave orders that no ship should leave Vera Cruz without orders. This measure remedied the evil to some extent; but still the corsairs lurked among the numberless islands and reefs of the Bahama Channel, through which vessels must pass on their way to Spain, and many a richly laden craft fell a prize to them before those on board were aware that an enemy was within sight. On one occasion while the viceadmiral of the treasure fleet was at dinner in his

1 Don Tomás Antonio de la Cerda, conde de Paredes, marqués de la Laguna, de la orden Alcantara, del Consejo de su Magestad, Camara, y junta de Guerra de Indias. Ordenes de la Corona, MS., iv. 47. He took office on November 30, 1680. Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., 16. In Rivera, Gob., 252, he is called Antonio de la Cerda y Aragon. According to this authority he was a man of illustrious family, the members of which had always been employed in civil and military affairs. He was accompanied by his wife, the Doña María Louisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga.

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NICHOLAS VAN HORN.

cabin, his ship was boarded by a boat's crew of twentyeight men in charge of a Frenchman named Pierre, a native of Dieppe. So sudden and daring was the attack that the vice-admiral and a number of officials who sat at table with him found themselves prisoners before they had time to gain the deck. The captives were put on shore at Cape Tiburon, and a few weeks later Pierre entered the port of Dieppe with his prize, which contained a rich freight of treasure and merchandise. This adventurer is dignified in buccaneer history by the title of le Grand.

In 1682 Tampico was sacked by corsairs and thirty prisoners taken. During the same year a sea rover named Nicholas Van Horn captured two vessels off the coast of Honduras. Van Horn is described as a man of swarthy complexion and short stature, a thorough seaman and a capable and far-sighted commander. He began life as a common sailor, and remained in that position until he had saved money enough to purchase a small craft of his own. Collecting a crew of twentyfive or thirty men, he began his career as a pirate by capturing several Dutch vessels, which he sold, and with the proceeds sailed for Ostend and there purchased a ship of war. His further operations were successful, and in a few years he was in command of a small fleet, with which he swept the seas, taking many prizes, and requiring all but French vessels to lower their flag as they passed him. Finally he gave offence to the monarch of France, and a captain named D'Estrées, being ordered to arrest him, put to sea in a well armed frigate for that purpose. When the captain's vessel fell in with Van Horn, the latter, finding himself outsailed, and not wishing to fight, for he was aware that D'Estrées was acting under orders from the crown, boarded his ship in a small boat, and demanded his intention in thus pursuing him. "To conduct you to France," replied the cap"But why?" exclaimed the pirate; "I have given no cause of offence to his Majesty, and have

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made war only upon his enemies." "My instructions are explicit," rejoined D'Estrées, and after some further parley ordered the anchor to be weighed. "What are you about?" cried the corsair angrily, and looking the captain straight in the eye. "Think you my men will not fight when they see me thus carried off before their eyes? You will find that my lieutenant is prompt to act, and that my crew fear neither danger nor death." The captain saw that his prisoner meant what he said, and as he had no orders to risk his vessel in an encounter with the corsair, he allowed him to depart.

Van Horn had the reputation of being the bravest of all the sea-rovers, and his crew was composed of men after his own heart. During the hottest fight he would closely observe their actions, and if any showed signs of fear, such as stooping to avoid the enemy's missiles, he would shoot them dead on the spot. But while he thus punished cowards, he rewarded without stint those who distinguished themselves in action, for he had amassed enormous wealth, and like others of his craft was lavish with his means.

Soon after joining the buccaneer fraternity he obtained a commission from one of the French governors, of whom there were now many in the West Indies, and proceeded to the island of Roatan, where he was joined by captains Laurent de Gaff, Michel Grammont, and others, who were there lying in wait for Spanish vessels. He now proposed an expedition against Vera Cruz, which was then the storing-place for the treasure and merchandise which passed between New and Old Spain. The city was protected by the island fortress of San Juan de Ulúa, which at that time was supposed to be impregnable. The fortress was mounted with sixty guns which commanded the town, and swept the approach by sea, and at the north-east and south-west corners of the city were two other forts with twenty guns. A few companies of veterans were stationed on the island;

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