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his wife and children detained as captives until a ransom of 14,000 pesos should be received. As the ayuntamiento refused to pay the money, the pirate made his demand in person at the town-hall; whereupon the governor, feeling that his family might come to harm, ordered the amount to be paid.

Nine years later an expedition was despatched from Mexico by way of Vera Cruz to Campeche, and being reenforced by the troops stationed there, drove the intruders from all their settlements on the bay of Términos. The attack was made on the 16th of July 1717, the feast of the virgin of Cármen, and hence the island received its name. A large amount of booty was wrested from the buccaneers, many of whom were slain, those who escaped harboring in Belize, where, being joined by others of their craft, they organized a force of three hundred and thirty-five men and returned to the bay of Términos. Landing on the Isla del Cármen they sent a message to Alonso Felipe de Andrade, the commander of the Spanish fort which had been erected during their absence, ordering him to withdraw his garrison. The reply was that the Spaniards had plenty of powder and ball with which to defend themselves.

The freebooters made their attack during the same. night and captured the stronghold without difficulty, taking three of the four field pieces with which it was defended. But Andrade was a brave and capable officer, and his men were no dandy warriors. Placing himself at the head of his command he led them against the enemy, forced his way into the fort, recaptured one of the field pieces, and turned it against the foe. During the fight a building filled with straw was set on fire by a hand grenade. This incident favored the Spaniards, who now made a furious charge on the invaders. Their commander was shot dead while leading on his men; but exasperated by the loss of their gallant leader, they sprang at the buccaneers with so fierce a rush that the latter were driven back

to the shore, whence they reembarked for Belize and thenceforth returned no more to the bay of Términos. 50

50 Soc. Mex. Geog., ii. ep. i. 220-2; ep. iii. 442; Nouv. Annales, Voy., c. 52. The account given in the former work is absurdly exaggerated; but it is the only one that pretends to give a detailed narrative of the expulsion of the buccaneers from the isla del Carmen. It there stated that, after being driven from the fort, the Spaniards mustered but 42 men, while the buccaneers according to this version must have numbered more than 200, allowing for their losses during the assault and for those who were left to guard their vessels. That this force, now in possession of three pieces of artillery, should have been defeated by a handful of Spaniards, seems ridiculous to all who are acquainted with the records of buccaneer warfare.

Herewith I give more complete references to the authorities consulted for the preceding chapters: Cedulario, MS., i. 132; iii. 63-4, 115-16; iv. 23; Reales Cédulas, MS., i. 5 et seq.; ii., passim; Providencias Reales, MS., 79101, 222-3, 266-8; Robles, Diario, i. ii., passim; Ordenes de la Corona, MS., ii. 25, 31-2; iii. 60–1, 166–7; iv. 30 et seq.; vi. 113–16, 135–7, 153; vii. S-45; Papeles Franciscanos, MS., série i. tom. i. 268-74, 314-21, 411, 478, 507; ii. 154, 178-200, 321-6; Rivera, Diario, vi. 15–96; Linares, Instrucciones, MS., 6-88; Certificacion de las Mercedes, MS., 13-21, 182; Disposiciones Varias, MS., vi. 3-13; Sigüenza y Góngora, Carta, MS., passim; Doc. Ecles. Méx., MS., i. 1-32; ii. 2-6, 25, 47-52, 74; Vireyes de Mex., Instruc., MS., série i. 49; série ii. 8, 23; Maltratamiento de Ind., 1-15; Lazcano, Vida del P. Oviedo, 70-101, 14057; Figueroa, Vindicias, MS., 12, 74, 78, 123; Villagutierre, Hist. Cong. Itza, 192-9, 211-49, 291-659; Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, i. 41-3; ii. 223-4; iii. 31-40, 109-215; Papeles de Jesuitas, MS., 5; Espinosa, Chron. Apost., 465-6, 488-534; Calle, Mem. y Not., 70; Davila, Mem. Hist., pt. i. 19-28; iii. 252-96; Monumentos Domin. Esp., MS., 104-9, 132, 152–5; VillaSeñor y Sanchez, Theatro, i. 122 et seq.; Vetancvrt, Cron. San. Evang., 75-9, 135; Id., Teatro, 51-2; Id., Trat. Mex., 16-17; Cortés, Hist. N. Esp., 26-30; Arricivita, Crón. Seráf., 94-7, 169-70, 241-312, 583-5; Carriedo, Estudios Hist., 116; Guatemala, Col. Cédulas Reales, passim; Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., ix. 133-49, 150-79; Doc. Hist. Mex., série i. tom. i. ii., passim; série ii. iv. 56 et seq.; vi. 17-96; Arlegui, Prov. de Zac., 81-2, 92–123, 201–6, 250-2; Escamilla, Noticias, 4; Recop. de Ind., i. 599; N. Mcx. Cédulas, MS., 80-2, 149-64, 281-4, 322-9; Derrotero para Naveg., MS., 13-22, 88-90; Egidos de Méx., MS., 61; Jaillandier, Extraite, MS., passim; America Descrip., MS., 155–8, 166, 177–9, 196–8, 207–39; N.Vizcaya, Doc. Mex., iv. 14– 21; Texas, Doc. Hist., MS., 455-9; Morfi, Doc. Mex., iv. 442-4; Escobar, Dreve Trat. Ord., MS., passim; Berrotaran, Doc. Mex., i. 171-7; Panes, Extension, MS., passim; Reales Ordenes, iii. 56-72, 308-12; iv. 416-19; Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbis, 505-10; Mayer MSS., passim; Laet, Amer. Descript., 256-9; Alaman, Disert, iii. 38-53, 211, 390; Lerdo de Tejada, Apunt. Hist., no. 5, 289-94, 366, 380-92; Arevalo, Compend., 29-30; Humboldt, Essai Pol., i. 276-81; Id., New Spain, ii. 203-22; Id., Tablas Estad., MS., 7-40; Id., Versuch, ii. 178–86; Gonzales, Col. N. Leon, 39-58; Arroniz, Hist. y Cron., 122-39; Hernandez, Estad. Mej., 17-18; Nayaritas, Relac. Conquist, 6; Caro, Tres Siglos, ii. 59-119; Verona, Paromologia, MS., 1-93; Lacunza, Discursos Hist., no. xxxv., 503-9; Rodriguez, Cuadro Hist., 41-2; Soc. Mex. Geog., Bol., ii. 29; iii. 239-42; iv. 19; v. 312; ix. 54; xi. 504; Id., 2da ép. i. 218-22; ii. 337; iii. 175-6; 3a ép. iv. 258; Nueva España, Breve Res., MS., 141-222; Instrucciones á los Vireyes, 302-17; Kerr's Col. Voy., x. 263-–72, 337-40; Correal, Voy., i. 44-5; Ortiz, Mex. Indep. Libre, 425-33; Zerecero, Rev. Mex., 4-5, 50S, 525-7; Mofras, L'Exploration, ii. 104; Zamora, Bib. Leg., ii. 253-5; iv. 442–4; Ortega, Álegación, 1-50; Rivera, Gobernantes de

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Mex., i. 252-68; Sosa, Episcop. Mex., 152-73; Nouv. Annales des Voy., c. 52; cliii. 8; Rivera, Hist. Jalapa, i. 98-110, 181-3; Varios Impresos, iii., passim; Forseca y Urrutia, Real Hac., i. 28-35, 324-5; Orizaba, Ocurrencias en, 1 et seq.; Registro Yucateco, ii. 5-10; Mexico, Not. Cuidad Mex., 22, 295-8; Zamacois, Hist. Méj., v. 439-553, 723-6; x. 1362-3; Pap. Var., ii., passim; clxvii. 3-9; excvi. 11 et seq.; Alvarez, Estudios Hist., iii. 263-4; Sammlung aller Reisebesch, xii. 386-403, 534-52; xiii. 484-9; Monroy, Oraciones Paneg., passim; Ancona, Hist. Yuc., ii. 316; Museo Mex., i. 51-3, 99–102; iv. 73–80; Alzale, Gacetas, iii. 441-2, 464; Cartas Edificantes, vii. 258-9; Gaceta, Mex., i. ii. iii., passim; iv. 9 et seq.; v. 18-370; vi. 30-70; viii. 277-309; x. 98, 185-6; Robinson's Mex., Rev., ii. 299–302; Lussan's Journal, 143-5, 348-84; Mayer's Mex. Aztec., i. 213-34; Stephen's Yuc., ii. 195-8; Mexico, Notes on, 236; Wilson's Mex., 24-5; World Displayed, vi. 49-65, 178-85; West. Indies Geog., 124-55; Id., Descript., 62-5; Heylin's Cosmog., 1069-80; Douglas' Summary, 72, 88; Chappe, Voy., 17-25; Fossey, Mex., 9; Macpherson's Annals, iii. 57; Archenholtz's Hist. Pirates, 78-84; Berenger's Col. Voy., i. 377-9, 402-3; iii. 3-4, 89-128, 309-10, 355-72; Spanish Empire in Am., 124–5; Robertson's Hist. Am., ii. 919, 1024; Mesa y Leompart, Hist. Am., i. 487-91, 572-5; Laharpe, Abrege, x. 86-93, 102-7, 124–31; Oexmelin, Hist. de Flib., i. 261-76; ii. 285-301; iii. 273-300; Müller, Reisen, iii. 195; Hassel, Mex. et Guat., 229-43; Mosaico Mex., i. 399-407; iv. 56-7; vi. 162–3; Larenaudière, Mex. et Guat., Vallejo, Vida, passim; Drake, Cavendish and Dampier, Lives, 201-2, 270-1; Burney's Discov. South Sea, iv. 127-8, 227–36; Ilustracion Mex., iii. 146-51; Fancourt's Hist. Yuc., 277-85, 292-316; Dicc. Univ., i. 80, 410, 470, 525, 667; ii. 64-6, 301-2; iv. 800; v. 53; vi. 156 et seq.; vii. 341, 517-18; viii. 142, passim; ix. 287-432; x. 96 et seq.; Viagero Univ., xxvi. 264, 278-9; xxvii. 58–70, 82-4; Pinkerton's Modern Geog., 210-14; Gage's Survey, 48-53; Id., Voyage, i. 56-68; Voyages, A New Col., iii. 183-206; Id., Historical, i. 332-60; ii. 45–66; Id., New Univ. Col., i. 141-8, 219–24; Zúñiga y O., Calend., 109-200; Sharp's Voy., 115-20; Payne's Hist., 67; Dunbar's Mex., 197-8; Castillo, Dice. Hist., 69, 183-6; Veracruzano, i. 34; Dampier's Voy., i. 254-71; Castellanos, Derecho, passim; Sartorius, Mex., 33; Castorena, Racones, 1-40; Salesii, De Confessionibus, passim; Dillon, Ilist. Mex., 76–9.

CHAPTER XVI.

NUEVA GALICIA.

1601-1803.

BOUNDARIES OF THE TERRITORY-ITS GOVERNORS-THE AUDIENCIA OF GUaDALAJARA ITS JURISDICTION AND POWERS-LOCAL GOVERNMENT-CORREGIMIENTOS AND ALCALDIAS MAYORES-CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, AND MINING DISTRICTS-THE CAPITAL-A CITY OF OFFICE-HOLDERS-TREASURY DEPARTMENT-INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS-MINES-QUICKSILVER MONOPOLY AND ITS EFFECTS-AGRICULTURE AND STOCK-RAISING LABOR, COMMERCE, AND SHIP-BUILDING-POPULATION AND LOCAL STATISTICS.

DURING the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Nueva Galicia almost coincided with the territory which now forms the states of Jalisco, Aguas Calientes, and Zacatecas. On the south, however, those parts of the Avalos provinces that lay south of Autlan and Zayula, now forming part of Jalisco, appear to have then belonged to New Spain, and were subject to the viceroy, while in the north-east Nueva Galicia included the western portion of what is now San Luis Potosí, the boundary line running near Charcas and Matehuala. The territory was under the political rule of a governor, who was also president of the audiencia of Guadalajara, and was appointed by the king, though nominally subject to the viceroy.1 In case of his death or inability to perform his duties the senior oidor of the audiencia ruled ad interim until a new appointment could be made.

In the seventeenth century the governors were

1 During the latter part of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century their titles were gobernador, presidente de la real audiencia, comandante general, and intendente. See Cedulario, MS., i. 114, 209; iii. 176, 238; Real Orden, in Mayer MSS., no. 2; Ugarte y Loyola, Rel., in Soc. Mex. Geog., Boletin, 2d ep., iii. 307.

GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS.

297

usually lawyers, and their duties in connection with the civil administration of the country were by no means arduous. Later, military men were more frequently appointed, and held under the viceroy the rank of captain-general; but their responsibilities were light, for peace prevailed throughout the land except in Nayarit, where a comandante was stationed, subject in military matters to viceregal orders, and in political and judicial affairs to the governor and audiencia. The election of subordinate local officials seems to have belonged originally to the audiencia; but after long disputes between that body and its president, during which both parties several times appealed to the crown, the latter received the right of making appointments-a license which he had gradually usurped.2

The governor subsequently named the alcaldes mayores and corregidores of the different districts, with the exception of Zacatecas and perhaps one or two others, where the king, for some special reason, retained the privilege. He also appointed, down to 1646, many of the officials of Nueva Vizcaya. All this power would seem, however, to have been vested in him as president of the audiencia, for the revenues were administered by special treasury officials appointed by the king, the governor receiving a regular stipend.3

There are few incidents worthy of record concerning the governors of Nueva Galicia, and these relate for the most part to trivial matters, as the quarrel of one with a bishop about some petty formality; the unusual brilliancy of the bull-fights at the installation. of another, while the building of a church or even the

2 Mota-Padilla, Cong. N. Gal., 508, is the authority for this usurpation, and he gives the number of appointments in 1742 as above 32; but Calle, Mem. y Not., 92, states that a century earlier the governor had the appointment of 54 officials in Nueva Galicia and Nueva Vizcaya.

3 The revenue collected in Guadalajara from all sources from 1730 to 1749 was 2,332,335 pesos. Mota-Padilla, Cong. N. Gal., 318. The same author boasts of the promptness with which Nueva Galica always paid her quota of taxation.

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