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might find shelter. He was also to explore generally and seek for the flitting strait of Anian, in which interest had been roused anew by mariners' tales. While the results of this expedition add little to the knowledge gained by Cabrillo, sixty years before, yet the records of Vizcaino's discoveries furnished for more than a century and a half the sole guide to the north-west. They name a number of points, islands, and inlets, including the bay of Monterey, and leave the impression that in latitude 42°, the extreme point reached, a great river had been discovered which students found little trouble to identify with Anian Strait.3


Vizcaino sought in vain to promote a further exploration of this region, for the interest therein had subsided, but an opportunity presented itself in a different direction. Franciscans had reached Japan, and had succeeded after many tribulations in prevailing on the emperor to admit more missionaries and to send envoys to Spain in order to establish intercourse with the Spanish people. They arrived at Mexico during the rule of the marqués de Salinas, and brought news also of some islands rich in gold and silver, which a drifting Portuguese vessel was said to have found in Japan waters. Whether this report proved the main incentive or not, the viceroy determined to respond to the advances made, and in 1611 Vizcaino was sent as embassador with instructions to establish commercial relations between the two countries, and to sp winter in Japan examining the coast and harbors, and gaining information about the rich isles, which were then to be sought for. He was accompanied by six barefooted Franciscans, three being lay brothers, and

For a detailed account of the voyage see Hist. Cal., ii. 97 et seq., and Hist. North Mex. States, i. 153 et seq.

The embassy was headed by Friar Alonso Muñoz, and appears to have reached New Spain in 1610, accompanied by a number of Japanese. Vizcaino, Rel., in Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., viii. 114.

In the narrative of this voyage Vizcaino is termed the son of the viceroy, Velasco the younger. Perhaps he was a hijo político, son-in-law; he certainly must have had high connections as he was 'encomendero de los pueblos de la provincia de Avalos.' Id., 102. Burney wrongly states that Vizcaino died in 1606. Hist. Discov. South Sea, ii. 259.


the native members of the embassy from Japan, and set sail from Acapulco on March 22d with one vessel, the San Francisco.

He arrived in Japan three months later, and was favorably received, whereupon he proceeded to examine the coast and in the following year to seck for the rich isles, though in vain. Meanwhile jealous Hollanders obtained the imperial ear and denounced the Spaniards as seeking to add Japan to their extensive conquests. The result was that Vizcaino's embassy failed at the chief court. He prevailed, however, upon another ruler, called Mazamune, to assist him in fitting out a new vessel, to replace the damaged San Francisco, and to send therein an embassy to New Spain. With this he reached Zacatula in January 1614. During the following years other efforts were made to establish intercourse, and to obtain better treatment for the persecuted missionaries, but without avail."

While explorations in northern latitudes proved failures, or little short of them, expeditions from Peru had opened a new field for enterprise in the southern Pacific, under Mendana in 1595, and more successfully under Pedro Fernandez Quirós, the companion of Mendana, who in 1605-6 made important discoveries in the Australasian groups, and concluded his voyage in New Spain.s

Their leader was evidently a convert, to judge from his name, Francisco de Velasco, baptized at Mexico probably. They numbered 23 and the crew 50 or more. The names of friars and officers may be found in Vizcaino, Rel.,


Vizcaino's failure is also attributed to the indiscreet zeal of a friar. Id., 198, etc. This appears to have been Luis Sotelo who proceeded with a Japanese convert to Rome and Madrid and obtained more missionaries, two of whom, Bartolomé de Burguillos and Diego de Santa Catarina, were appointed envoys by Felipe III., and reached Japan in 1616. The feeling against Spaniards had meanwhile grown stronger and the friars were forced to depart without executing their commission. Japanese from a more friendly court accompanied them, and were favorably received at Mexico in 1617, but do not appear to have accomplished anything. Medina, Chron. S. Diego, 14850. Cavo mentions an embassy in 1615 from Idates, probably identical with one of the above. Tres Siglos, i. 261, 254, 257-8. The rich isles long continued to be an object of search to Philippine navigators and others.

8 Whence he proceeded to Madrid with his report. Id., i. 244. The voy age is fully related in Burney's Hist. Discov. South Sea, ii. 273–317.


The successor of Viceroy Monterey, Juan Manuel Hurtado de Mendoza y Luna, marqués de Montesclaros, arrived in September 1603, accompanied by his wife Ana de Mendoza, and was met at Otumba by the conde de Monterey, who had there prepared the most magnificent reception, attended by people from far and near. The festivities lasted eight days, and are said to have cost Monterey a whole year's salary.10

If this reception was intended to propitiate Montesclaros, it probably failed, for on reaching Mexico and proclaiming the residencia of his predecessor according to instructions, he appears to have made no attempt to shield him. Monterey was condemned to pay the two hundred thousand pesos wantonly spent in the unfortunate attempt to gather the scattered Indians into settlements. Although the sentence was set aside by the king, the count felt it deeply as a reproach on his administration. Montesclaros showed himself possessed of an indomitable will and an ability which under more trying circumstances might have been of great value to his sovereign. As it was, nothing rose to disturb tranquillity, save the complaints of descendants of the conquerors, whose clamor" for office he chose to disregard in favor of really meritorious applicants. His policy met with approval, and, the viceroyalty of Peru becoming vacant in 1606, he was promoted to it.12

A successor had not as yet been selected, but soon


Knight of Santiago and gentleman of the bed-chamber. He appears to have been born at Seville, the posthumous son of the second marquis, and held the coveted office of asistente in that city. Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., vi. 272; Moreri, Gran. Dic., vii. 362. Portrait and autograph in Rivera, Gob. Mex., i. 80.

10 Torquemada, i. 727. They entered Mexico October 27th. Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., 12.

"Forty of them became quite turbulent, and the marquis, already on the way to Peru, was with difficulty restrained from turning back to inflict chastisement. Their complaints against him resulted merely in a decree favoring his policy. Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 246. His views on these points are given in Advertimientos de Montes Claros, in Instrucciones de Virreyes, MS., i. 254.

12 He was permitted to govern till his departure, and as a mark of distinc tion an oidor accompanied him to Acapulco. Torquemada, i. 737. He died October 9, 1628. Moreri, vii. 362.

after came the appointment, for the second time, of Luis de Velasco, whose previous rule had endeared him both to king and people. Weighted by years, he had shortly before retired from the government of Peru to spend the remainder of his life on his encomienda of Atzcapotzalco, near Mexico. Duty compelled him, perhaps not unwillingly, to forego retirement, and on July 2, 1607, he made his entry into the capital, after meditating for a week in the Franciscan convent of Tlatelulco over the suggestions imparted by his predecessor. This appointment was assumed by many to have been heralded by a beautiful comet which in the previous month appeared to hover above Atzcapotzalco. Besides the viceroy's inauguration, the year was made memorable by the ceremony of swearing allegiance to the prince of Asturias, the later Felipe IV., on a scale of grandeur surpassing any previous display of the kind.

Velasco's path was smoothed in several respects by the licentiate Landeras de Velasco, late oidor of Seville, who came as visitador, and proceeded with great strictness to investigate charges against the audiencia and departments in connection with it. At the entrance to his house a box was placed for those who wished to make secret complaints and memorials. The result was that Oidor Marcos Guerrero and Doctor Azoca, alcalde of the court, were suspended and subsequently sent to Spain. The visitador's strictness evoked hostility in several quarters, but this served merely to render him more imperious. A sermon by Martin Palacz, rector of the Jesuit college at Mexico, appearing to reflect on his course, he caused his arrest and sent him off toward Vera Cruz in charge of two negroes. Although his departure was suspended, indignities were continued till the royal cédula came with excuses for the hasty action of Landeras.13 This may have been one cause for the recall of the

13 Alegre, Hist. Comp. Jesus, i. 442-4, places this occurrence in the early part of 1007.


visitador, in 1609, to the relief of the officials, who had sought to hasten his removal by charges of bribery and other misconduct. Torquemada condemns his opponents, and lauds him highly as a man of unimpeachable rectitude, a friend of the Indians, and one who returned poorer than he came.14


In the first year of Velasco's rule was begun the famous drainage work of Huehuetoca, already projected by Enriquez, whereby Mexico hoped to obtain relief from the inundations which had caused such oft-repeated misery. The rains in the autumn of 1604 had been so heavy as to inflict great damage, and leave some parts of the city under water for a year. In the midst of this suffering a Franciscan spread terror among the people by preaching in the public square against the prevailing wickedness, and declaring that the city deserved to be destroyed. Quite a panic fell on all classes, and the churches were crowded all night by penitents. No cataclysm followed; but three days later an earthquake was felt, which frightened several persons to death.15

So discouraged were the people that they seriously considered the expediency of removing the capital to the hills of Tacubaya;16 but property-owners, who had over twenty millions of pesos at stake, succeeded in preventing the movement. Montesclaros, then ruling, favored the drainage undertaking, but so many objections were raised that he turned his attention wholly to repairing the dike of San Lázaro and the causeways of San Antonio and Chapultepec, while he finished that of San Cristóbal, in addition to constructing the causeway of Guadalupe." Notwithstanding

14 Monarq. Ind., i. 759. The papers of the visita were taken by the presi dent of Guadalajara audiencia, Juan Villela.

15 The startling sermon was delivered on the eve of Santo Tomás, during a heavy rain, by Friar Solano, guardian of the Recollects. Id., 728.

16 Royal permission appears to have been granted to this effect. For other reasons see Icazbalceta, Col. Doc., i. 506-7; Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., xiii. 76-8.

17 The latter occupying nearly 2,000 Indians for five months. Torquemada,

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