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Pantano, Jaumave, Llera, Croix, and Güemes belonged politically to the colony of Nuevo Santander, and spiritually to the diocese of Nuevo Leon. Arias, Informe, MS., in Pinart, Col. Doc. Mex., 342. See also Estad. Hist. Ant., in Soc. Mex. Geog., Boletin, 2da ep., i. 570.

The Historia, Geografia y Estadistica del Estado de Tamaulipas por el C. Ingeniero Alejandro Prieto, Mexico, 1873, 4to, pp. 5, 361, map, gives an outline of the history of Tamaulipas from the time of the conquest; the author makes an effort to prove an ancient civilization in that state, based upon some personal researches and a number of relics discovered, with a brief narrative of aboriginal traditions, habits, customs, and religion, touching also in a general way on the historical events of Texas, Nuevo Leon, and Sierra Gorda. Then follows a description of geographical conditions and political divisions, giving, based on statistics, information on the material standing of the country in regard to agriculture, commerce, industries, and general resources. This portion of the work is by far more useful than the historical division; indeed the author does not claim any credit in that direction, and we find but a confused compilation of historical data, scattered about promiscuously with an utter disregard to logical sequence, and clogged by eternal repetitions. Notwithstanding these defects, the author has undoubtedly been painstaking in his researches, both among the ancient ruins of his country, and among authorities which it might be difficult for others to obtain.

CHAPTER XIX.

THIRTY-SEVENTH TO FORTY-THIRD VICEROYS.

1721-1760.

BI-CENTENNIAL OF EUROPEAN OCCUPATION-VICEROY CASAFUERTE-HE ENCOURAGES PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS-PEACEFUL PROGRESS-DEATH OF THE VICEROY-HIS SUCCESSOR ARCHBISHOP VIZARRON-NEGRO INSURRECTION AT CÓRDOBA-ITS SUPPRESSION BY THE MILITARY-RAVAGES OF EPIDEMIC-VICEROY CONQUISTA'S RULE-FUENCLARA ARRIVES-COMMODORE ANSON-HE CAPTURES THE 'COVADONGA'-SPANISH JEALOUSY-PERSECUTION OF BOTURINI-LOSS OF VALUABLE MANUSCRIPTS-ADMINISTRATION OF REVILLA GIGEDO-HIS TRAFFICKING PROPENSITIES— FAMINE, DISEASE, AND EARTHQUAKES-FUENCLARA RESIGNS-VICEROY AMARILLAS-HIS POVERTY AND DEATH-THE AUDIENCIA RULES-SHORT ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROY CRUILLAS.

MORE than two centuries had now elapsed since the fleet of Cortés had cast anchor under the island of San Juan de Ulúa, and of all the powerful tribes that once rendered allegiance to the Montezumas few retained any traces of their ancient glory. While in 1721 the Spaniards were celebrating the bi-centennial of the occupation of the capital, the mountain tribes of Nayarit were being subjugated, and a quarter of a century later those of Nuevo Leon, Sierra Gorda, and Tamaulipas were destined, as we have seen, to meet the same fate.

On October 15, 1722, Juan de Acuña, marqués de Casafuerte, the successor of Valero, arrived in Mexico as thirty-seventh viceroy of New Spain. He is said to have been one of the best of all the representatives of royalty, being remembered in the history of the country as the 'great governor." During his ad

1 Casafuerte was a creole, a native of Lima, Peru. During 59 years of public service he had been viceroy of Messina and of Sicily. Besides being

ministration Casafuerte wrought a marked change in the various branches of the public service, and labored zealously, and not in vain, to purify a venal court. Many of the former rulers had done much to benefit the country by establishing new colonies, and encouraging commerce and the development of the mining and agricultural interests. It must be acknowledged, however, that few of them were proof against the temptations of the age, and that directly or indirectly they countenanced the shameful abuse of selling public offices to the highest bidder. When Casafuerte took charge, he at once abolished this practice. No presents were received, no favors shown; none of his household or subordinates dared to meddle in the question of appointments, or to intercede for office-seekers. Wholesome reforms were introduced and maintained during his long rule, while merit alone was the passport to preferment.

In the matter of public improvements the marquis was equally active. The building of a new mint was begun in 1731, and finished in 1734, at a cost of four hundred and fifty thousand pesos; in 1733 the plaza de Acapulco was renovated, the San Cristóbal causeway having been reconstructed the previous year. The grand aqueduct which supplies the city of Querétaro with water was begun in 1726 and finished in 1738.3 Improvements were also made in the various presidios throughout the country under Pedro de Rivera, who made a four years' tour of inspection by order of the viceroy, and a cannon foundry was established at Orizaba, the guns being used to strengthen the coast defences.

general of artillery, he had attained the highest military title, that of captaingeneral of the Spanish army. Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 122; Alaman, Disert., iii. app. 53.

In 1722 the royal theatre was destroyed by fire. Steps were immediately taken to rebuild, though the new edifice was not reopened until 1753. Alaman, Disert, iii. app. 53; Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 122.

This structure was undertaken at the suggestion and under the patronage of Juan Antonio de Urrutia y Arana, marquis of Villa del Villar del Águila, who, encouraged by Casafuerte, spent large sums on it from his private for tune. Navarrete, Rel. Peregrina, no. ii. 1-11.

CASAFUERTE AND VIZARRON.

351

The administration of Casafuerte was not marked by any internal disturbances; nor were the provinces. harassed by the depredations of pirates which wrought so much mischief during the rule of his predecessors. Commerce still suffered to some extent on the North Sea, but corsairs had been driven from the waters of the Pacific, and trading vessels passed to and fro between New Spain and the East Indies without fear of being molested.

The marquis was beloved by the people, and the only enemies he had were dissatisfied office-seekers. These prevailed upon the king's council to recommend his removal on account of his great age, and his long tenure of office, which was inconsistent with general usage. When this was done Felipe signified his confidence in his representative by merely replying: "As long as Casafuerte lives his talents and virtues give him all the strength necessary for a good governor." Soon afterward, however, in 1734, the marquis died, at the age of seventy-seven. His funeral ceremonies. were described in detail in the Gazette then published by Sahagun. Since that time they have served as a model on similar occasions, and resemble those which at the present day are observed on the demise of a president of the Mexican republic.*

When the carta de mortaja, was opened by the audiencia it was found that the archbishop of Mexico, Juan Antonio de Vizarron y Eguiarreta, was designated to fill the vacancy. Vizarron was appointed to the primacy January 13, 1730, and arrived in

5

In 1724 Felipe V. abdicated the crown of Spain in favor of his son Luis I., who ascended the throne on January 10th. While preparations were being made to celebrate the event, news arrived of the death of the latter, which had occurred August 13th the same year, and Felipe, reluctant to place his minor son Fernando upon the throne, had reassumed the crown.

On the death of archbishop Lanciego in 1728, Manuel José de Endaya y Haro was elected to the see, but died before taking possession, October 5, 1729. The bishop of Puebla, Juan Antonio de Lardizabal, was elected the same year to fill the vacancy, but the prelate refused the appointment. Concilios Prov., 1555-65, 224-5; Doc. Ecles. Méx., MS., ii. pt. i.; Dicc. Univ.,. ix. 271.

the capital on December 20th of the same year. He was consecrated by the bishop of Puebla Lardizabal y Elorza, assisted by the bishops of Yucatan and Caracas, who were on a visit to Mexico at the time, and took charge of the ecclesiastical government on the 21st of May 1731, receiving the pallium on the 13th of January 1732. The pastoral administration of the archbishop, which lasted sixteen years, was one of the most peaceful and prosperous recorded in the annals of the Mexican church; and concerning his reign as viceroy, it may be said that he was in every way a worthy successor to Casafuerte; he sent more treasure to Spain than any previous viceroy, without oppressing the people, draining the country of the precious metals, or diminishing the amount usually held in reserve at Mexico.

Though near the close of his administration war was again declared between Spain and England; New Spain remained undisturbed by foreign aggression; on the other hand, we have to record for this period some internal troubles and calamities. The negro and other slaves of the town and vicinity of Córdoba had long meditated revolt, when in 1735 a rumor was circulated by a mulatto that all slaves had been declared free by the king, and that they were now unlawfully kept in bondage by the Spaniards. A general uprising followed in the month of June; and though some of the more timid remained with their masters, the majority, being supplied in secret with arms of every description, gathered and fortified themselves on the hacienda called Omealca, protected by the Rio Blanco and the mountains. The militia of Vera Cruz, Ori

Archbishop Vizarron was born in the city and port of Santa María, Spain. So little is known of the early history of this illustrious member of the church that not even the date of his birth is given. His biographers merely mention that his studies were completed in the college of San Clemente in Rome, and that at the time of his election as archbishop of Mexico he was a high dignitary of the church of Seville. See Reales Cedulas, MS., i. 28–9; Providencias Reales, MS., 8-10; Cabrera y Quintero, Festividades, Div., i. pt. i.; VillaSeñor, Teatro, i. 26–31; Gazeta Mex., Dec. 1730; Arévalo, Compend., 290.

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