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THE successor of General Cagigal, and forty-fourth viceroy, was Joaquin Monserrat,1 marqués de Cruillas, a knight grand cross, claviger commander of Montroy and Burriana, and bailiff of Sueca in the order of Montesa, a mariscal de campo3 of the army, and lieutenant-colonel of the royal Spanish infantry guards. He brought out his wife, Doña María Josefa de Acuña, a lady related to the highest nobility of

'His family names, as given at the head of his decrees, were Monserrat, Ciurana, Cruillas, Crespí de Valldaura, Alfonso, Calatayud, Sans de la Llosa. Disposic. Varias, i. 21, iv. 1.

A Spanish order of knighthood named after the convent of Santa María de Montesa, which was situated two leagues from the city of Játiva in the province of Valencia. It was founded with the sanction of Pope John XXIL in 1537. Moreri and Miravel y Casadevante, Gran. Dicc., vii. 74.

3 This was his military rank at the time of his appointment. Reales Cédulas, MS., ii. 237. His promotion to lieutenant-general was decreed soon after his departure for America. Rivera, Gob. Mex., i. 388. He certainly held the commission of a lieutenant-general during his rule in Mexico, and made it appear in his decrees.

Her family names were: Acuña y Prado, Vazquez, Coronado, Henriquez, Luna y Portocarrero, Castro, Figueroa y Mendoza, Ronquillo y Briseño, Mas. careñas, Alencastre y la Cueva. Rodriguez, Express. del Dolor., i.- xvi.

Spain, among whom was the late viceroy, marqués de Casafuerte, and it is even said that royal blood coursed in her veins.

The marqués de Cruíllas was appointed viceroy of New Spain on or before the 9th of May, 1760. He left Spain in July, touched at Puerto Rico and Cuba, and landed in Vera Cruz the 4th of September. He left that city the 19th, and journeying as his predecessors had done, reviewing on his way the colored troops in Puebla, and reached on the 5th of October Otumba, where acting viceroy Cagigal delivered him the baton of command, and on the next day' informally entered the capital. Being received by the ayuntamiento and conducted to the presence of the royal audiencia he then laid before that body his commissions as viceroy, governor, and president, took the oath of office, and made his public entry into Mexico on the 25th of January, 1761, not the 17th as modern authors have asserted.

Several important affairs soon engaged the new viceroy's attention. The first was the recognition and proclamation of the new king who had ascended the throne in November 1759. The act had been decreed in 1760 and postponed. The viceroy resolved that it should be on a magnificent scale. Accompanied from the palace by the city council, courts of justice, and the nobility on horseback, holding the standard that had been blessed by the archbishop, the marquis repaired to the stage erected in the plaza mayor, where being challenged to raise the standard for Carlos

5 Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 173, refers to the Libro Capitular of Mexico for this date. Lorenzana, Hist. N. Esp., has it 4th of October. Panes erroneously places his arrival in Mexico on the 24th of August. The same authority adds that Cruillas was the last viceroy to make a public entry in Tlascala and other places as had been the practice of his regularly commissioned predecessors. Panes, Vir., in Monum. Dom. Esp., MS., 49.

On his recognition he demanded the yearly pay of $40,000 from the date of his embarkation for America. Rivera, Gob. Mex., i. 388.

He at once carried out the papal bull on patronage, prayer, and recognition of the mystery of the immaculate conception of the virgin Mary. Ib. A grand triumphal arch was erected with allegorical paintings, which are described in a work dedicated to the marquesa de Cruillas. Leon, Ilust. de las Pinturas, 1-40.


III. he complied, and then and there the caciques of Tlatelulco, Tezcuco, Tlacopan, and Cuyoacan reiterated their allegiance on behalf of the Mexican nation. The procession being again organized, the several other platforms were visited, and the ceremonies repeated. That night, and the two following, the city was brilliantly illuminated, and the people surrendered themselves for three days to festivities, in the midst of which poetical effusions were not wanting.



While the viceroy was studying the general affairs of the country, and discharging his multifarious duties, news reached Mexico early in 1762 that war had been declared by Spain against Great Britain. There were good reasons to apprehend an attack on Vera Cruz, for early in June a combined land and naval force had captured Habana. Cruíllas hastened to Vera Cruz to provide for its defence, taking with him the two companies of his guard, and reënforcing the few bodies of regular troops at his command. The militia, both infantry and cavalry, from all parts of the country was mustered into active service, and quartered at a convenient distance from Vera Cruz. Among them was one battalion of Puebla, and one of Michoacan. Most of the men were Spanish creoles; to render them efficient the viceroy summoned to his aid such governors, corregidores, and alcaldes mayores as had formerly followed the profession of arms."

The real consulado of Mexico raised and equipped at its own expense a regiment of dragoons. The regi

8 Cárlos III., Amorosa Contienda, 1-208; Cárlos III., Real Procl., 1-29. The ceremonials of allegiance were repeated throughout the country. In Puebla, particularly, the loyal manifestation was marked. An obelisk, said to have been worthy of the Augustan era, with the king's statue on the top was erected in the plaza. Cárlos III., Obelisco, 1-4, etc.; Plateros, Obelisco, 1-5. The ceremonies in Vera Cruz are described in Idea Mercurial, 1–26.

Alaman, Disert., iii. app. 63. Among those who obeyed the summons were Pedro Montesinos de Lara, president of the real audiencia of Nueva Galicia, and comandante general of that province; and José Carlos de Aguiar, governor of Durango. The latter was made inspector-general of all the troops called to the succor of Vera Cruz. Panes, Vir., in Monum. Dom. Esp., MS., 119-20.

miento del comercio was intrusted with the preservation of public order at the capital, which service it had rendered, on several previous occasions of danger, free of all cost to the royal treasury.

The viceroy visited Anton Lizardo and Alvarado, and caused provisional batteries to be erected to protect the entrance of the bar, and floating batteries. A hospital was likewise made ready, and barracks for the troops. Every possible measure was adopted to meet the impending attack.10

The whole force put under arms remained in active service till all danger had passed," peace having been concluded between the belligerents soon after. The news of peace was brought by a British man-of-war, which found some difficulty in gaining admittance into port; but becoming satisfied of the truth of the report, the authorities finally greeted her with the usual honors. On the 25th of February, 1763, arrived in Vera Cruz the British frigate Trent with the Spanish prisoners captured by the English in the siege of Habana, and a copy of the preliminaries of peace. In September of the same year came several small vessels conveying the garrison, officials, vecinos, and two bands of Indians from Pensacola, which place, by order of the captain-general of Cuba, had been surrendered to the English.12 The energetic measures taken and personally supervised by the marqués de Cruíllas for the defence of New Spain were highly appreciated, and rewarded by the crown.13

10 At this time was brought to Vera Cruz from Campeche a 'religioso servita,' who pretended to have visited Yucatan to procure shoes for the English. Several papers and drawings of Spanish ports being found on his person, he was taken to Mexico as a spy, and with the approval of the audiencia thrown into jail. This confinement of a priest with common criminals was objected to by the archbishop, who claimed the ecclesiastic immunity; the secretary of the audiencia was excommunicated; but the viceroy and audiencia demanded the repeal of the excommunication, and the demand was complied with. Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 380-1; Rivera, Gob. Mex, i. 394-5.

11 The expense incurred in these preparations exceeded two million dollars. Rivera, Gob. Mex., i. 394.

12 The authorities and the people provided for the comfort of the immigrants. Id.

13 He was made 'gentil hombre de cámara de S. M.' Reales Cédulas, MS., ii. 153; Rivera, Gob. Méx., i. 399.



Experience had taught the neces called thssity of a strict supervision by the crown over the d withounanagement of the treasury. The court, therefored no core, directed Francisco Armona to come to New Spe's lieutenin as visitador general to inspect and arrange the charg administration of the royal revenues." The king's which minister, Arriaga, sent the viceroy the instructiim thaions under which the visitador was to act, and ording alered him to aid that officer in every possible way. of tharmona, who had been given five assistants, died oopmon the passage out, and José de Galvez, an intendent ctede of the royal army, was chosen for the position, or He came out in 1761, and before he had fairly best gun the discharge of his duties a disagreement d tbsprang up with the viceroy who refused to reco hegnize certain powers claimed by the visitador. Thean reupon the latter, referring the questions to the cro W/wn, led a retired life and awaited the final decision. T gihe fleet of 1764 brought him powers independent o'y the viceroy, almost unlimited ones, which the latter

could not ignore.

Galvez was endowed with talents of a high order, a sterling fearless character, indomitable will, and uncommon industry, united to great experience in affairs. He has been charged with a harsh, despotic, rancorous disposition,10 that never tempered justice with clemency, but there were deeply rooted abuses to

14 The French at that time had much influence at the Spanish court. They urged Spain to be better prepared with resources for war, to which end the government should effect such changes in the administration of the American possessions as would bring about an increase of revenue, which hitherto, considering their extent and wealth, was indeed a very scanty one. Alaman, Disert., iii. 296.

15 He owed his great promotion to the French ambassador at Madrid. Alaman, Disert., iii. 296.

16 Hombre de pasiones fuertes, rencoroso y terrible...abusaba del poder que el Soberano habia puesto en sus manos. Many thought him insane. Bustamante, Suplem., in Cavo, Tres Siglos, iii. 44.


17Galvez was a native of Málaga. His services were munificently rewarded by the sovereign. In 1768 he was made a member of the supreme council of the Indies, and on his return to Spain ministro universal de Indias, an office that he held till his death, which occurred suddenly at Madrid on the 17th of June, 1787. He had been also given the title of marqués de Sonora. The news of his death reached Mexico the 30th of August. Many of those who suffered at his hands showed their satisfaction in disgraceful printed papers that made their appearance the next morning. Lorenzana,

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