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was promoted to the archbishopric of Mexico, of which he took possession on the 22d of August, receiving on the 8th of September the pallium from the bishop of Puebla.52
Lorenzana's government of the archdiocese, though a brief one, was marked by acts that justly entitled him to a high place among the most distinguished members of the Mexican episcopacy. His first act was to establish a foundling asylum. Soon after his arrival he noticed the absence of such a shelter for the care of infants forsaken by their parents either to conceal a fault or to elude the fulfilment of their duties. He purchased out of his income a suitable building on the 11th of January, 1767, founding and organizing in it the casa de niños expósitos, commonly known as La Cuna, which he supported till he left the country. He was governing in harmony with the civil power, and much valued for his learning, virtue, and philanthropy, when he received promotion to the archbishopric of Toledo, and was made primate of Spain, to which place he had been nominated on the 27th of January, 1771. In his new position he had a still wider field of usefulness. On the 30th of March, 1789, Pius VI. made him a cardinal.53
When the French revolution broke out and a large number of ecclesiastics from that nation sought a refuge in Spain, Lorenzana, foremost among the Spanish prelates, afforded them great protection and assistance. In 1797 he was sent by Cárlos IV. to Rome to afford aid and comfort to Pius VI., and remained at the pontiff's side, accompanying him to Florence and thence to Parma. The object of his company was to furnish pecuniary resources to Pius. At last the
52 Concilios Prov., 1-2. His autograph signatures and official seal appear in Concilio Prov. Mex., 4; Sosa, Episcop. Mex., 192; Figueroa, Vindicius, MS., 1.
53 Bustamante and others attribute his getting the red capello to his work in the fourth provincial council. Suplem., in Cavo, Tres Siglos, iii. 12. The fact is that the honor has been almost invariably conferred on the archbishops of Toledo.
5 Michaud, Biog. Univ., in Sosa, Episcop. Mex., 197.
French refused him a passport, and he was separated from the illustrious captive, whom he never saw again. The cardinal is heard of as present at the conclave held in Venice. In 1800 he resigned the archbishopric of Toledo, and fixed his residence in Rome, where he died the 17th of April, 1804, being interred in the church of Santa Croce.
Upon the receipt in Mexico of the news of the death of its former archbishop, funeral honors were paid him with great pomp.
55 Id. in Id., 198.
56 Vir. de Mex., Instruc., MS., 1st ser., no. 22, 1-12; Arévalo, Laudatio Funebris, 1-31. Lorenzana published several works giving impulse to letters, particularly to historical research. The principal ones were: Concilios provinciales primero y segundo, celebrados en la muy noble, y muy leal ciudad de México. Mex. 1769, folio. Concilium Mexicanum provinciale III. Celebratum Mexici, anno MDLXXXV. Præside D. D. Petro Moya et Contreras...Confir matum Romæ die XXVII. Octobris anno MDLXXXIX... Mex. 1770, folio. Historia de Nueva-España, escrita por su esclarecido Conquistador Hernan Cortés, Aumentada cón otros documentos, y notas. Mex. 1770, folio. Statuta Ordinata a Sancto Concilio Provinciali Mexicano III. Ex Præscripto Sacrosancti Concilij Tridentino Decreto Sess. 24 cap. 12 de Reform., verbo cetera. Revisa a Catholica Majestate, et a Sacrosancta sede Apostolica Confirmata, A. D. Millessimo quingestissimo octuagessimo nono, folio. In the first above inentioned work, preceding the Constituciones of the councils is the editor's carta pastoral, briefly relating the object of such councils, and giving the history of those held in Mexico. Next appear the resolutions of the first Junta Apostólica, and the curious information of Captain Juan Juarez y Gamboa in 1649 on the coming of the first clergymen to New Spain; Bishop Garcés' letter to Paulus III. in favor of the natives, and next the pope's bull in 1537 declaring the Indians rational beings. After the acts of the two councils are given biographical sketches of the archbishops of Mexico, and bishops of Puebla, Guatemala, Antequera, Michoacan, Guadalajara, Yucatan, and Durango. These biographies, though brief and often erroneous as to dates, are important for the study of Mexican ecclesiastic history. In continuation are the Avisos para la acertada conducta de un párroco en la América; Privilegios de Indios, and Avisos para que los naturales de estos reynos sean felices en lo espiritual y temporal. The whole ending with a good index in six pages of the matter contained in the volume.
With reference to the Historia de la Nueva España, which contains the second, third, and fourth letters of Hernan Cortés, Icazbalceta says that he has been unable to ascertain if the original Lorenzana had before him was the edition in Gothic letters or Bárcia's reprint. His work is valuable any way, for his additions, namely: Alzate's map of New Spain (1769); Cortés' journey from la Antigua Vera Cruz to Mexico, for the better understanding of the places mentioned in the map; a drawing of the chief temple of Mexico; remarks for better understanding Cortés' letters (information on ancient history with the series of Mexican emperors); months of the Mexican year (drawing); government of New Spain (list of governors and viceroys from Cortés to Viceroy de Croix); here follows Cortés' second letter; fragments of a tribute map (Mendoza's Codex), giving the towns that paid, and expressing the kind, quantity, and time (31 drawings with a preliminary note); here follows Cortés' third letter; Cortés' voyage to the Cali
fornias, with information on all expeditions made to that country till 1769, for better understanding Cortés' fourth letter and projects.
Icazbalceta, Col. Doc. Hist. Mex., i., referring to Lorenzana's collection reprinted in New York, in 1828, 1 vol. 8vo, by Manuel del Mar, justly finds fault with the editor's alterations, an unpardonable one being that of substituting j for x in Mexican names. The editor omitted Nos. 1-5, 7, and 9 of the previous, and added an historical account of Hernan Cortés with some poor cuts taken from Clavigero. As to the tribute map, Orozco y Berra, an archæologist worthy of all respect, discovered many errors, omissions, and changes which he details in Anales del Museo Nacional de Méx., i. 183 et seq., concluding with these remarks: 'No proseguiremos amontonando cargos, doliendonos que los grandes gastos y empeño del Señor Arzobispo Lorenzana, por circunstancias fuera de su voluntad, no hubieran sido más fructuosos para la ciencia.' Lorenzana published at his own expense for distribution, not for sale, the above named works, and several others of minor importance, namely: several pastoral letters; Missale Gothicum secundum regulam B. Isidori in usum Mozarabum, Rome, 1804, folio; Opera Patrum Toletanorum; Opera S. Martini Legionensis, etc., all of which have become quite rare. Also: Aranzel para todos los curas de este arzobispado, fuera de la Ciudad de México, Mex. 1767, fol., 6 leaves; Memorial que presentan á todas las Comunidades, y Gremios los Pobres Mendigos de Mexico por mano de su Arzobispo (n. p. n. d.), 4to, pp. 29; Memorial que presentan á todas Estados los Niños Expósitos de la Imperial Ciudad de México por mano de su Arzobispo, Mex. 1770, 4to, pp. 21; Reglas para que los naturales de estos Reynos sean felices en lo espiritual, y temporal, Mex. 1768, folio, 2 leaves; Tratado del Agua Mineral Caliente de San Bartholome (n. p.), 1772, 4to.
VICEROYS FORTY-SEVEN TO FORTY-NINE.
VICEROY MARTIN DE MAYORGA-HIS EXCEPTIONAL POSITION-WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN-WARLIKE MEASURES-MAYORGA'S EFFICIENT RULEVICEROY MATÍAS DE GALVEZ-HIS SHORT ADMINISTRATION-HE PROMOTES IMPROVEMENTS-THE CONDE DE ARANDA'S PLAN-INDEPENDENT KINGDOMS IN SPANISH AMERICA TO BE ERECTED-KING CARLOS' OBJEC TIONS-THE AUDIENCIA RULES A FEW MONTHS-VICEROY CONDE DE GALVEZ-HIS GREAT SERVICES AND RANK-UNBOUNDED POPULARITYTREASONABLE SCHEMES ATTRIBUTED-HIS ILLNESS AND DEATH-POSTHUMOUS BIRTH OF HIS CHILD-MAGNIFICENT CEREMONIALS AT THE CHRISTENING-THE FAMILY LIBERALLY PENSIONED-THE AUDIENCIA RULES AGAIN.
MARTIN DE MAYORGA, a knight of Alcántara and mariscal de campo of the royal army, who had been captain of the Spanish royal guards, governor of Alcántara in Estremadura, and lastly governor, president, and captain-general of Guatemala, became the forty-seventh viceroy of New Spain. He had but just surrendered the baton of command to the inspector of the troops, and was on the point of departing for Spain, when despatches reached him that in the pliego de mortaja opened in Mexico at the death of Viceroy Bucareli he was named as the successor ad interim. On the 23d of August, 1779, he entered the viceregal palace, and took the oath of office, which was administered him by the regente in the presence of the oidores.2
1 He started for Mexico on the 18th of May, 1779. Juarros, Guat., i. 271-2; Escamilla, Not. Curiosas de Guat., 50-1; Disposiciones Varias, i. 58-63; Cédu lario, iii. 61.
2 Gomez, Diario, 70.
Mayorga is represented to have been affable and liberal, possessing a magnanimous charitable heart, and making himself beloved by all, and yet he had to exercise much prudence as well as force of character, his position being an unfortunate one, as will be seen hereafter.
The new viceroy's arrival at the capital occurred just eleven days after the proclamation there, on the 12th, of war having been declared May 18th against Great Britain by King Cárlos III. Assistance secretly afforded by Spain to the British North American colonists to attain their independence, had much to do with the animosity of the day; in which measure Spain did not know how surely she was working her own undoing in the same direction.
The people of Mexico saw in this war nothing but misfortune; their trade would be harassed, and their coasts ravaged. Taxation, loans, and sacrifice of life would naturally follow. Nor were their fears unfounded, for very soon Mexico was called to the aid of Guatemala for the recovery of the port of Omoa in Honduras, which the English had taken. She was also required to take a prominent part in the combined Spanish and French operations against Florida. Those operations were quite active from 1779 to 1781.*
Fearing an assault on Vera Cruz, the government
Bustamante, the editor of Cavo, Tres Siglos, iii. 31-2, assures us that the policy of the Spanish court in aiding the colonists was intended to avert a dangerous British invasion of New Spain from the North American colonies-a false step in his opinion, which eventually proved injurious not only to the allied powers, the French and Spaniards, but also to the people of New Spain, whose emancipation it retarded 50 years, though not preventing it. The king however, in his manifesto of July 8th to his vassals of America, states as his reasons for the war, among others, the hostile acts of the British authorities in Darien and Honduras. On the first day of the same month ordinances additional to the general regulations to govern the royal navy and letters of marque on the subject of prizes, had been issued. All trade and intercourse with the British had been forbidden in June. Reales Ordenes, iv. 57-84, 192-6, 199-225.
Mayorga had been apprised in Puebla of the measures the audiencia had decreed to supply with money Yucatan, New Orleans, Habana, Manila, and other points, which derived their support from Mexico, and might expect an attack by the enemy at any moment. He sent, in various amounts, about $600,000 to Louisiana for the campaign against the English in Florida. Bustamante, Suplem., in Cavo, Tres Siglos, iii. 30–7.