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which the viceregal functions had been very much curtailed, in fact, reduced to but little else than presiding over the audiencia, and directing military matters. Without complaint, however, he devoted his attention to this latter branch of the royal service, introducing many improvements, and employing the forces to the best advantage.
After the death of the once powerful José de Galvez, marqués de Sonora, the policy of the king's government underwent a change. The superintendency of the exchequer was again given to the viceroy, and Mangino was called to the royal council. The crown, heeding the clamor from the frontier provinces and the viceroy's urgent advice, empowered him to wage a relentless war upon the wild tribes. Florez, accordingly, in 1788 and 1789 made constant warfare against the Apaches, Lipans, and Mescaleros until they were subdued, the peace lasting for many years. The viceroy promoted the officers who had rendered efficient service in the campaign, not forgetting the rank and file, to whom deserved rewards were given. He was now compelled to look after the expeditions sent to the Pacific by the English and Americans, and to watch the Russians in California. He gave strict orders to the governor of this province, the commandants at San Blas and Acapulco, and the other local authorities on the Pacific, and requested the president of Guatemala to arrest, if possible, all such exploring ships and their crews as came within their respective jurisdictions. During this rule two exploring expeditions were despatched from San Blas to the Northwest Coast. Full details on these matters are given in other parts of this history. Florez did not confine himself to war; he favored letters, and was a friend to the scientific and literary men of Mexico. He endeavored to carry out the
34 Flores, Instruc., in Instrucciones Vir., 119.
35 Real Orden, March 11, 1788, in Mayer's MSS., no. 1; Escudero, Not. Son., 71; Bustamante, Suplem., in Caro, Tres Siglos, iii. 82.
RETIREMENT OF FLOREZ.
project of creating a botanic garden, together with an institute for lectures, a library, etc., but the heavy expenditure that must be incurred checked these enterprises.
At this time the treasury had much trouble in meeting the outflow resulting from various causes beyond Florez' control. In 1787 the revenue had decreased considerably, and left a deficit of nearly one million dollars, though Florez had remitted ten millions. Being unable to finish the palace of Chapultepec he recommended that it should be sold, or that the surplus from the liquor revenue should be applied to its completion. The old palace at the foot of the hill was now a mass of ruins. The health of the viceroy had been bad during the most of the time of his administration. He suffered from hypochondria, which restricted his efforts. Consequently, on the 26th of September, 1788, he petitioned the king to relieve him of his office and permit his return to Spain. This was granted in a royal order of February 22, 1789, with the condition that he should remain in Mexico till his successor arrived. The crown, however, in order to show its appreciation of Florez' services in Mexico, relieved him from the usual residencia, and directed that six months' pay of a viceroy should be placed at his disposal from the royal treasury, to take him back to Spain. He accordingly left Mexico on the 5th of October for Guadalupe, refusing the honors paid to viceroys on such occasions. After delivering the command to his successor, on the 19th he started for Vera Cruz, remaining in Jalapa till November, when he embarked for Spain on the ship of the line San Roman.
36 Panes, Vir., in Monum. Dom. Esp., MS., 56.
37 Alaman believes that his son's marriage into a family permanently settled in Mexico, contributed not a little to the prompt acceptance of the resig nation; the policy of the government being opposed to high officials or their immediate connections relating themselves so closely with permanent settlers in the country where they held office.
38 Órdenes de la Corona, MS., iii. 82. 39 Gomez, Diario, 326–7.
The death of Cárlos III., which occurred the 14th of December, 1788, was officially announced in Mexico the 23d of March in the following year. The viceroy, as well as the ayuntamiento, calling itself "cabildo, justicia y regimiento de esta imperial corte, cabeza de todos los Reinos y Provincias de la Nueva España," on the same day directed solemn obsequies, and public prayers for the soul of the deceased monarch; all citizens and dwellers in the country excepting dependants, servants, and Indians, were to wear mourning, provided at their own expense, during six months. The Indians were exempted on account of poverty, and left to use such signs of sorrow as they wished, or their small means allowed.40 The preliminary ceremonies took place at 9.30 in the morning of the same day and of the next at the cathedral, followed by others at the parish and conventual churches, till 9 o'clock in the night of the 24th. Immediately after the announcement of the death, five guns were fired, followed by one every fifteen minutes. The balconies. of the government and other principal buildings were dressed with damask, its bright color being relieved by black crape. The 26th and 27th of May were fixed by the viceroy, audiencia, and archbishop for the obsequies. These were held with the greatest possible magnificence, the archbishop officiating, and the viceroy and other authorities of all ranks attending them, the military also taking a prominent part. The ceremonies were repeated with much solemnity at the Santo Domingo convent in Mexico, and at all the chief cities and towns in the country.
Soon after the death of Cárlos III. his son Cárlos IV. ascended the throne, having been duly recognized as the rightful successor. Viceroy Florez had been
40 Disposiciones Varias, i. 66; Ordenes de la Corona, MS., iii. 79–80. 41 Gaz, de Méx. (1788–9), iii. 278-9, 302-3, 324-5; Reales Exequias en la Sta Catedral, 1-13, and i.-xxxiv. 1-29; Cárlos III., Reales Exequias, May 26-7, 1789; Cárlos III., Reales Ex. en Guadalajara; Cúrlos III., Reales Ex. en Puebla.
duly apprised of this fact on the 23d of December 1788, the king manifesting a wish that the expenses to be incurred at the festivities to celebrate his accession should be moderate, so as to relieve his faithful vassals from unnecessary burdens. The proclamation of the new king was first officially made in Mexico on the 27th of December 1789,42 and on the 23d of January 1790 the intendente-corregidor published an edict to notify the people of the capital that from the 25th to the 28th of January, and from the 1st to the 7th of February feasts were to be held. The programme included high mass and other religious rites, swearing allegiance to the sovereign, banquets, balls, public illuminations, fireworks, bull fights, and tournaments. Befitting literary exercises were held at the university.
The ceremonies of recognition, and the consequent festivities, were repeated in all the large towns, and the people everywhere gave themselves up to rejoicing.* Several other times during the century had the people of Mexico an opportunity to make manifest their loyalty to the crown. In 1789 and 1791, upon the birth of princesses, and in 1796 on the occurrence of the royal marriages, te deums, salutes, and amusements were in order.44
42 A royal order of September 18, 1789, reduced the number of occasions that the audiencia was bound to attend church feasts and other ceremonies. It also reiterated the royal order of March 14, 1785, forbidding the second entry by viceroys. Ordenes de la Corona, MS., iii. 85-6.
43 Gaz. de Méx. (1790-1), iv. 18-19, 26, 30, 33-4, 36-8, 41-43; Univ. de Mex., Obras de eloqüencia, several pages; Plancarte, J., Sermon de Gracias, 1-26; Carlos IV., Breve Rel. de las Func., 1-17, and a cut; Peñuelas, P. Sermon, 1-14; Limon, Ildef. Gomez, Sermon, 1–30. Registro Yucateco, ii. 213–19, gives from an unpublished manuscript an account of the feasts that took place the 21st, 22d, and 23d of April, 1790, in Campeche.
Revilla Gigedo, Bandos, nos. 3, 4, and 47. In 1796 the king granted a general pardon to all minor offenders against the laws. Cedulario, MS., i. 204.
ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROY REVILLA GIGEDO
ANCIENT AND MODERN POPULATION OF NEW SPAIN AND THE CAPITALCHAPULTEPEC-PALACE OF VICEROY GALVEZ-MORAL AND SOCIAL CONDITION OF THE CAPITAL-REFORMS MADE BY THE VICEROY-APPEARANCE OF THE CITY IN 1800-PROMINENT BUILDINGS-AND OTHER OBJECTS OF NOTE-NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LOS REMEDIOS-ARRIVAL OF REVILLA GIGEDO-CRIMES AND QUICK JUSTICE-MILITARY REFORMSINDIAN DISTURBANCES-THE VICEROY'S LETTER-BOX-FORMATION OF OFFICIAL ARCHIVES-INTENDENCIAS-EFFECT OF THE FRENCH REVOLU TION ON NEW SPAIN-RECALL OF THE VICEROY-UNJUST PERSECUTION HIS FINAL VINDICATION.
ACCORDING to a census taken in 1790, by order of Viceroy Revilla Gigedo the younger, the population of the intendencia of Mexico then exceeded 1,500,000, and that of the capital was little short of 113,000;1 and yet it is probable that the latter estimate was little more than one third of the number of inhabitants that peopled Tenochtitlan immediately before
1112,926, according to the tabular statement of this census in Gaceta Mex., v. 8. It was considered, however, that this count fell short by about one sixth. Humboldt, basing his calculation on this census, estimates the population at the beginning of this century at 137,000. Of these 2,500 were Europeans, 65,000 Spanish creoles, 33,000 native Indians, 26,500 mestizos, and 10,000 mulattoes. It is probable that this estimate is not too high, though the population of the city was fluctuating, being influenced by floods, political disturbances, and other causes. Moreover, at certain times the capital would be overrun with vagrants, while at others it would be almost free from them. Consult Humboldt, Tab. Estad., MS., 7–40; Id., Essai Pol., i. 194-8; Cancelada, Ruina, 73-7; Guia de Forasteros, 1797, 197-8; Zúñiga y O., Calend., 149-50; Mex., Not. Ciud., 178-80; Guerra, Rev. de N. Esp., i. 31, 335; Abeja, Poblana, 75; Ortiz, Mex. Ind. Libre, 79-80; Mex. Ord. Division, passim; Soc. Mex. Geog., Bol., ii. 8. Russell, Hist. Amer., i. 389 (London, 1778), places the population at 80,000.