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dor. The most prominent architectural structure in the city was then, as it is now, the cathedral; and as to the palace of the viceroys, it was said that no edifice in Madrid could compare with it in size.1 Adjoining, and on the side fronting toward the palace of the archbishop, stood the mint, a large and imposing structure. The custom-house, fronting on the plaza Santo Domingo, was also a fine edifice. The botanic garden in one of the courts of the viceregal palace, though small, was famous for its collection of rare plants, and of such as were important to industry and commerce. Here Viceroy Bucareli would pitch his tent during certain seasons of the year, receive visitors day and night, and transact his business.

Another large building was the tobacco factory, in which more than five thousand persons were employed. A structure of historical interest was the famous acordada building, erected during Bucareli's administration, and situated between the alameda and the paseo bearing that viceroy's name.15 The municipality buildings were also of imposing proportions, situated on the principal plaza and facing the parian, which had taken the place of the baratillo and occupied an area of a hundred and forty varas. Other edifices of note were the college of San Ildefonso, and the mining school with its physical, mechanical, and mineralogical collections; the university building and public library, and the academy of fine arts with its collection of gypsum casts; the celebrated hospices, and the buildings of the inquisition. The least favored of all the public buildings was the theatre.17

The principal entrances to the city were those of Guadalupe, Angeles, Traspana, Chapultepec, San

14 No hay en Madrid edificio comparable en extension con el palacio del Virey.' Estalla, xxvi. 278.

15 Id., 279.

16 See Villa-Señor y Sanchez, Teatro, i. 53-61; Mex., Not. Ciudad Mex., 8 et seq.; Ortiz, Mex. Indep. Libre, 485 et seq.; Estalla, xxvi. 281.

17 El coliseo ó teatro es indigno de México, y no se puede ponderar su deformidad sino afirmando que es abominable el edificio, y lo peor es que ame. naza desplomarse.' Ortiz, Mex. Ind. Libre, 497.



Anton, and San Lázaro. The two magnificent aqueducts which enter by way of Traspana and Chapultepec and supply the city with water, have been described elsewhere.

The so-called paseos, or public walks, were the delight of the Mexican population. The most beautiful of them was the famed alameda, which had no equal in Spain. The paseo of Iztacalco was another favorite resort, and lay on the banks of a canal of that name. By this route and the canal of Chalco hundreds of canoes brought daily into the city building material, provisions, vegetables, fruit, and flowers in great quantities, until in time the canals were filled up in the central part of the capital; particularly when the streets became raised in consequence of the deposits left by inundations. The greater part of the vegetables and flowers were raised on the famous chinampas, or floating gardens; their number, however, was daily diminishing. In the paseo of Bucareli an object of just admiration was the colossal equestrian statue of Cárlos IV., first erected on the principal square, but in later years removed to this place of recreation. This piece of American art was executed by the order and at the expense of Viceroy Branciforte. It was of bronze and in one piece, modelled, cast, and erected by the celebrated Mexican sculptor Manuel Tolsa. Humboldt, who was present at the unveiling of the monument, says that, except the statue of Marcus Aurelius at Rome, there was nothing of the kind in Europe to equal it in beauty and purity of design.18

Among the convents the most prominent was that of the Franciscans, which in the year 1800 enjoyed an income from alms alone of more than a hundred thousand pesos. Of the churches remarkable for splendor, elegance, and beauty of design those of San Agustin, Santo Domingo, San Pablo, Soledad, Jesus María, and Santa Teresa were the most noteworthy. In this

18 See Humboldt, Essai Pol., i.

connection may be mentioned an image of the virgin worshipped under the name of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios, to which miraculous powers were attributed. This was among the images brought to Mexico by the soldiers of Cortés. It belonged to one Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, to whom it had been given by his brother, who said it had aided him greatly in his campaigns in Italy and Germany. The image was at first placed in a temple hastily built, and from that time became an object of veneration to Spaniards and Indians, on account of favors said to have been conferred on the public and on individuals in times. of calamity. In 1574, as before mentioned, a church was founded for its reception, where four festivals were celebrated yearly-those of the nativity, purification, incarnation, and conception. Many great marks of favor were recorded, after the building of this temple; particularly in times of drought, storm, epidemic, earthquake, inundation, and famine. Down to 1696 the image had been solemnly carried in procession to the city as often as fifteen times.19

Of all the viceroys of New Spain, the fifty-second, Don Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla, conde de Revilla Gigedo, was one of the most able.

19 The first solemn occasion was in 1577, 'para dar remedio á la epidemia del cocolistli.' Medina, Chrón. S. Diego, 31-2. In 1810, after the first war of independence broke out, it was brought to and placed in the cathedral. The viceroy laid at its feet his baton, and declared the virgin 'generala' of the royalist troops, decorating the image with the insignia of that rank. The patriots, on the other hand, bestowed the rank of captain-general on their favorite, the image of the virgin of Guadalupe. Thus was the virgin under different names called on to lead the two hostile armies. Vetancvrt, Prov. S. Evang., 128-32. For description and particulars concerning the city of Mexico at different periods, see Ogilby's America, 86, 243; Gage's Survey, 87-150; Sammlung, Reiseb., 453-78; Vetancvrt, Ciudad Mex., 1-5; Medina, Chrón. S. Diego, Mex., 234; Panes, Vireyes, MS., 128; Tratado, Mex., pt. v. 28-45; Calle, Mem. y Not., 42-5; Dávila, Cont., MS., 302; Torquemada, i. 298–304; Cepeda, Rel., in Boucher, vi. 154; Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Ecles., i. 7-8, 11; Villa-Señor, Teatro, i. 53-61; Mendoza, Carta, in Florida, Col. Doc. 137; Humboldt, Essai Pol., 202-4; Revilla Gigedo, Resid., MS., 374-85; Viagero Univ., 190 et seq; Ortiz, Mex. Indep. Lib., 485-535; Orozco y Berra, Mem. Ciud. Mex., 159-222; Pagés, in Berenger, Col. Voy., vi. 44-6; Correal, Voy. (Paris ed.), i. 50-60; Mex. Not., Ciud. Mex., 8-188; Russell's Hist. Am., i.

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After being appointed captain of the viceregal guard under his father, who was a former viceroy, he served with distinction as lieutenant-colonel of the Spanish guards at the siege of Gibraltar. Landing at Vera Cruz on October 8; 1789, the baton of office was delivered to him at Guadalupe 20 on the 16th of the same month.

The count was the man needed for the occasion. One morning, about a week after his arrival, it was found that the house of a wealthy merchant, named Joaquin Dongo, had been broken into by burglars, money and valuables stolen, and all the members of the household, eleven in number, assassinated. The criminals were executed on November 7th, a fortnight after the commission of the deed. Never before, except in the days of Velazquez and other officials of the santa hermandad and acordada, had justice been administered with such despatch.

For many years before the viceroy's arrival a celebrated bandit named Pillo Madera had been the terror of the community. The authorities either would or could not bring the miscreant to justice. His astuteness and audacity were as great as those of any of his famous colleagues in Italy, and his band of cut-throats had never been surpassed in ferocity and cruelty. Madera alone had committed twenty-eight highway robberies and seven assassinations. The new ruler made short work of the matter: in 1791 Pillo Madera was captured and hanged.

During Revilla Gigedo's administration war was declared with France. Although there was little fear of invasion the viceroy made all needful preparations. A regiment of dragoons was sent to Durango to protect the borders of the provincias internas; the militia on the north coast was prepared for efficient service,

20 He was originally appointed viceroy of Buenos Ayres; but in consequence of the resignation of Florez, he was ordered to proceed to New Spain. See Ordenes de la Corona, MS., iii. 82.

and the fortifications of San Juan de Ulúa strengthened; the garrison of Vera Cruz was reënforced, and the king's treasure, ready for shipment, removed to a safe distance. All this was accomplished at little expense.

The condition of the army occupied the viceroy's special attention and a reconstruction was proposed according to orders issued in January, 1792. The regular troops and the militia were in a demoralized condition, and their insubordination gave such serious cause of offence that they were put under strict regulations, and a portion of the latter disbanded. These measures caused dissatisfaction, particularly among the creoles, and it is claimed that the reduction in the militia was one of the few errors of Revilla Gigedo's administration. Bustamante says that he gave a fatal blow to this branch of the service, destroying and unmaking what had been established with much care and labor since the time of Viceroy Cruíllas. In his instructions to Branciforte, the count claimed, however, that in the enlistment of provincials there seemed to have been no other purpose than to defraud the king's treasury, for such troops were unreliable in action. 21

The immediate consequence of this measure was that native tribes committed depredations in the eastern provinces. Many colonists were assassinated in Coahuila, the Indians penetrating to within the confines of Saltillo, driving off cattle, and winning over the presidio of San Juan de Rio Grande. Still greater disturbances occurred in the colony of Nuevo Santander, where in the settlements of Laredo, Revilla, and Mier, twenty-five Spaniards were killed between March and July, 1791.

21 Revilla Gigedo, Instruc., 147. Bustamante, in Cavo, Tres Siglos, iii. 104, says that the viceroy believed them to be no match for foreign troops in case of invasion. The viceroy reduced the militia in order to increase the royal revenue; for while serving, the Indian was exempt from the payment of tribute, ceasing to enjoy this privilege as soon as discharged. Id., Id., 105. The Spanish government disapproved of the count's measures, and decrees were subsequently issued for the reconstruction of the militia, during Branciforte's administration.

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