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standing Ocampo's order that none should go further than the church of Santo Domingo, until on reaching Guadalupe, it numbered fully five thousand Indians, negroes, and half-breeds. While the archbishop dined and rested, the people by degrees returned to the city, there spreading the news and arousing general dis


That night the three oidores, whether influenced by partisans of the archbishop or fearful that their action had been hasty, took counsel of one another. The result was that Ibarra despatched a messenger to Terrones bidding him go slowly, for on the morrow the order touching the exile of the prelate would undoubtedly be revoked. On the morning of the 12th, accordingly, the three met formally, with Vallecillo as president, passed a resolution declaring that there had been a lack of accord in the proceedings of the previous day, and ordering that, while this point was considered, those having the prelate in custody should return with him at once. Of this the viceroy had speedy information, and ordered the clerk of the audiencia to deliver up the document. The oidores met again, and passed another resolution revoking the four orders of the 11th, on the ground that they had not been passed by a quorum, and ordering that the archbishop should be brought back to Mexico. Informed of this second meeting of the oidores the viceroy ordered them into confinement within the palace, and that two relatores who had taken part with them should be put in prison. He also ordered that no action should be taken in the matter of the revocation by the oidores, in which he had had no part.


Fearing lest the archbishop might renew the interdict, and having strengthened his resolve by an appeal to the fiscal, the marquis sent Tobar to the cathedral and the churches, to notify the chapter and the parish priests not to obey any such order on the part of their


40 The document was not properly authenticated because the deputy clerk stood in fear of the viceroy. Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. ii. 247-50.

superior till the delegate should have rendered his decision. Tobar found the cathedral doors shut, although the building was full of people, but obtained admittance after some delay. Not without opposition he read the order from the steps of the high altar, and was promised obedience by the provisor and the chapter; but the parish priests replied that they had no power to suspend or impede what their superior might determine.

In order that the archbishop might not attempt to influence in any way the delegate at Puebla, the viceroy despatched a messenger to Terrones, with orders to avoid that city and to take another road." A halt had been made at the town of Guadalupe for the purpose of allowing the archbishop to rest, and of this he availed himself to issue two additional decrees. In the first, after reciting his visit to the audiencia, his arrest, and his deportation to this place, the prelate declared that the president and oidores, as well Terrones, Zavala, Perea, and Osorio, together with Ocampo and the alguaciles of the guard, had incurred the censures mentioned in the canon clementia si quis suadente diabolo and the bull in cana domini. This decree was made known at once to all the persons named therein, except the president and oidores, with an offer of absolution if sought within six hours. The second edict was addressed to the clergy, reciting the facts mentioned in the first edict and ordering an interdict to be established.


The archbishop had wished to remain still longer at Guadalupe, but Terrones insisting, he consented at length to go on, and the night was passed at the hermitage of Santa Isabel. On the following evening he reached San Juan de Teotihuacan. On the morning of the 13th Terrones entering the bed-chamber of the archbishop found him still abed. He de

41 He should send back Osorio, whose services were needed in Mexico. 42 The names of the excommunicated were ordered to be posted in the usual manner. Id., 191-8.


sired the prelate to dress and to enter the carriage which was in waiting at the door. Informed of the action of the oidores the archbishop pleaded that his health would not allow him to pursue the journey for the present. Terrones insisting, he replied curtly that a formal order would alone have weight with him.13 It was indecent that a person of his quality should be carried off in this manner, when there was nothing in his conduct to warrant such treatment; and were he to go willingly he might be accused of a desire to proceed to Spain on an errand of his own. Not wishing to take extreme measures Terrones sent to Mexico for further orders. Alarm at his spiritual plight may have been one of the reasons why Terrones consented to humor the prelate, but for this he was reprimanded by the viceroy, who also rebuked his negligence in allowing the issue of fresh excommunications, intimating that a prompt execution of orders would be more pleasing than a waste of time in sending despatches and awaiting answers. A little compulsion would do no harm.45

The afflicted Terrones accordingly issued orders for departure. The luggage was sent on before, the carriage stood in readiness, but no archbishop appeared. At first the attendants of the prelate gave out that he was at his prayers, and then that he had gone for a walk; but, on more special inquiry, it was found that he was actually in the church of the Franciscan



43 Y no en otra manera, y que esto daba y dió por respuesta.' Id., 259. 44 While expressing sympathy for the illness of his grace, Gelves intimated that the complaint might be merely a pretence.

45 Torres, the messenger, afterward testified that Gelves bade him tell Terrones: 'Si el dicho señor arzobispo dificultase el proseguir en la jornada y para esto se acostase, que ordenase á Don Diego de Armenteros y á las guardas, que con la misma cama se metiese en el coche habiéndole apercibido primero que se vistiese y aprestase.' Father Domingo Navarro Fortunio, who accompanied the archbishop on the journey, testified that on receiving this order Terrones said, his eyes filling with tears: 'Qué compadrazgos tengo yo con el señor arzobispo, ni qué he hecho yo para que se me trate tan infamemente.' Id., 405, 261. An order also came that four members of the cathedral chapter, who had come to San Juan Teotihuacan by vote of the chapter for the purpose of accompanying the archbishop to Vera Cruz, should travel one day's journey at least in advance.

convent.40 Terrones followed him, accompanied by the alguacil mayor, Torres, and four of the reluctant guard. On entering the church they found the prelate, in rochet, cape, and stole, standing by the high altar, while the ciborium was open with the host in remonstrance within. Terrones, weeping, upbraided him for thus forcing extreme measures, saying that he had lost his honor, and his life was forfeit to the viceroy's wrath. To this outburst the prelate replied calmly that he could not continue the journey, for he was engaged in visiting officially the altar of the parish. Saying this, he took from the ciborium a wafer which he placed on a paten, and holding this in his hands he seated himself close to the altar. But soon the wily priest was carried away by the excitement attendant on a situation so dramatic, or possibly he determined purposely to heighten its effect. When the alcalde again desired him to leave these things and to continue the journey, he burst into tears, exclaiming that he had not wished to resort to this extremity in Mexico, for the land was newly christianized, and he feared lest the faith of the Indians might be shaken by the occurrence of events to them inexplicable. 'Here, however," he added, "all are Spaniards; just as I am take me away. Thus saying, he placed the paten upon the


"" 47


Terrones then ordered the notary to instruct the captain of the guard to do as the viceroy had ordered. As, in obedience to the thrice repeated order, Armenteros and one of the guards began to ascend the steps

46 Armenteros says that the archbishop went to the church in an artful manner, without even a hat, and as if for a short stroll. Id., 423.

47Y puesto en esta forma, hablando las dichas palabras, dijo le llevasen como estaba.' Id., 263. The account of the archbishop's taking refuge in the church rests in the main on the sworn testimony of Diego Torres, the notary, who in his official capacity has full opportunity of knowing whereof he spoke, and whose words bear with them intrinsic evidence of their truth. He stated that the archbishop accused Gelves of having forced the oidores to pass the order for his exile, adding that the viceroy was the greatest tyrant in the world, and that Torres might tell him so. Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. iii. 8.



of the altar, the archbishop arose, and lifting the paten on high before them he said: "Let us see if there be a Christian man so dead to shame as to lay hands on Jesus Christ." The intangible power of the church was still paramount. Serna successfully played the part of Becket, but to Armenteros and his men the spirit of the Norman knights was lacking; bursting into tears they retired. On his part Terrones exclaimed: "My lord, you have wrought my undoing!" To this Serna replied: "Sir doctor, I but work in the cause of your worship and that of these poor fellows." The alcalde took his wonted way out of difficulties, and bade Torres ride with speed to Mexico in order to give an account to the viceroy of the turn matters had taken. The latter merely replied that Terrones should be recalled and give place to a man who would carry out orders rather than write despatches. All that night the prelate remained at the post he had chosen near the high altar, taking such rest as he could on its steps, regardless of the cold. All night the sacrament remained exposed on that altar while the guard kept watch by turns.49

48 I have already had occasion to speak of the faint-heartedness of Armenteros in this matter. He lamented that he was an unfortunate man. 'Que no tenia mas que una vida, y esa la habia de perder por Dios y su rey.' Id., ii. 423.

49 In the morning the archbishop, wishing to celebrate mass, desired all who had come under the ban of the church to withdraw. This request however was denied, for Terrones held that neither he nor any of his party were excommunicated, since, as the prelate well knew, they were acting under compulsion, and the mass was left unsaid. The request for continuing the journey again met with a refusal. The archbishop said he knew the audiencia had issued an order for his return to Mexico, but if Terrones could produce one of later date from the same body, whereby he was required to pursue his way to exile, he would cheerfully obey it.

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