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standard publications. Ordenes de la Corona, 7 vols., partly in printed form but chiefly manuscript, possesses the additional interest of containing numer. ous originals with the signatures of the kings, from Philip II. to Cárlos III., of ministers, prelates, and judges. The last volume of Disposiciones Varios, 6 vols., is peculiar as being reserved chiefly for edicts of the inquisition on books, morals, and articles of faith. Fernando VII., Decretos, Mex. 1836, contains the cédulas issued by this monarch during the stirring times which preceded the independence of the mainland colonies.

Hardly less important than the laws, for a subject like the preceding, are the instructions left by different viceroys to their successors. Not all of these have been preserved, and many of these dignitaries neglected to do their duty in this respect; nevertheless the more important have been issued in manuscript and print, and stand on my shelves as Vireyes, Instrucciones, in two series, partly MS., and relating also to residencias, with several original documents. The value of this class of papers for history, induced the Mexican government to publish a number of them, together with pertinent letters, under the title of Instrucciones que los Vireyes...dejaron, Mexico, 1867. The most valuable of the instructions are undoubtedly those of Revilla Gigedo the younger, the ablest ruler of New Spain, whose name has found an imperishable monument in the many reforms effected by him, in the embellishments of his capital, and in political writings, notably the Instruccion, 1794, which has been reprinted more than once in quite voluminous form, and widely distributed also in manuscript. The careful arrangement of subjects and paragraphs accords with the clear and pointed style, and enables one readily to grasp the exhaustive review presented of every department of government, with its accompanying criticisms and suggestions. Several of his letters are preserved, and I possess a collection of his decrees forming a folio volume. The importance of the period following Revilla Gigedo's rule has led me to obtain manucript copies also of their instructions, including Branciforte's and Azanza's, which are modelled on the preceding, though less bulky.

A useful adjunct to this material is presented in the Memorial y Noticias Sacras y Reales, 1646, of Calle, which forms semi-official statistics of districts and towns, sees and offices in the five audiencia districts of the New Spain royalty, together with some account of official routine. Pinelo refers in detail to his several manuscripts on similar subjects. Epitome, ii. 798-9. More particularly devoted to routine and form are Moreno, Reglas, Mexico, 1637, for judicial officers; Martinez, Librería de Jueces, Madrid, 1791, for guidance of unprofessional magistrates; Mexico, Aranceles de las Tribunales, etc., Mexico, 1759, giving duties and fees of courts and court officials; Mexico, Circular Nombramientos, MS., Certif. de las Mercedes, MS., and Yrolo, Opera, Mexico, 1605, provide forms for official proceedings; Leyes, Varias Anotaciones, MS., in eight books, concerns chiefly officials and their duties, but the notes are of little value; Ejidos de México, Autos, MS., gives valuable information about town lands in connection with legal proceedings by the Mexico municipality for protecting its grants. Official statistics are given in Zuñiga y Ontiveros, Calend. Man. y Guia Forasteros, Mex. 1789, and in Guia Forast, of later years, while the colonial system finds reviewers in such books as Villarroel, Enfermedades Polit., and Campillo, Nuevo Sistema, Madrid, 1789. Campillo wrote

the book as early as 1743, and before this a number of papers appeared from his pen on similar topics which did not a little to promote reforms in administration.

I give herewith in compact form, for further review, the authorities consulted for the preceding chapter: Puga, Celulario, 80-1, 101-2, 127, 134, 150-1, 161, 180-207; Reales Cédulas, MS., i. 10-13, 30-4, 65-80, 203–8; ii. 22, 74, 86, 109-63, 237; Ordenes de la Corona, MS., i. passim; ii. 16; iii. 64 et seq.; Cedulario, MS., i. 34-46, 169-76; iii. 39-58, 164–6, 192-7, 205-11; iv. i.; Providencias Reales, MS., passim; Vireyes de Mexico, MS., 1-4; Recop. de Ind., i.-ii., passim; Montemayor, Svmarios, 1 et seq.; Mexico, Ordenanzas Ciudad, MS., 1-34; Monumentos Domin. Esp., MS., 125-8; Linares, Inst., MS., 12-44; Beleña, Recop., i., passim; Ordenanzas del Consejo Real, 1-206; Revilla Gigedo, Bandos, nos. 2-72; Id., Instruccion, MS., i. 43-99, 199; ii. 121-5; Id., Residencia, MS., 438-9; Azanza, Ynstr., MS., 4-49, 77, 102-3; Calle, Mem. y Not., 7, 43-100, 132, 165-83; Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Ecles., ii. 101; Col. Doc. Inéd., xxi. 439, 462-93; Medina, Crón. S. Diego, 227-34, 246; Villa-Señor, Theatro, i. 17-19, 37-50, 61-89, 120-82; Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., xvii. 178; Cartas de Ind., 266; Doc. Hist. Mex., série i. tom. i. 38-9, 139-164, 315-76, 412-26, 457, 474-83, 504, 545; ii. 72-4, 99, 111, 124 et seq.; Cogollvdo, Hist. Yuc., 404; Papeles de Jesuitas, MS., 39-41; Ejidos de Mex., MS., 70 et seq.; America, Descrip., MS., 103-4; Certificacion de las Mercedes, MS., 92; Rockwell's Span, and Mex. Law, 405-6; Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbis, 281-3; San Miguel, Segunda Guia, 142-60; Villarroel, Enfermedades, 68-127; Fernando VII., Documentos, 314-27; Lerda de Tejada, Apunt. Hist., no. 5, 388-92; Campillo, Nuevo Sistema, passim; Guerra, Rev. N. Esp., 617-18; Martinez, Libreria, iii. 69–122, 373; Cavo, Tres Siglos, i. 158; Ancona, Hist. Yuc., Zamacois, Hist. Méj., iv. 5-46; v. 290, 579, 600, 625-80; x. 1319-25; Pap. Var., v. 39-57; cxlii. 10-12; cliii. 14-55; Zavala, Rev. Mex., 19; Viagero Univ., xxvi. 265-70, 283-4; xxvii. 48; Rivera, Gobernantes de Mex., i. 110, 156, 186, 225, 240–2, 263; Bejamar, Discurso Export., 1-32; Spanish Empire in Am., 103-34; Torrente, Hist. Rev., i. 7; Mayer's Mex. Azt., i. 260-1; Alvarez, Estudios Hist., iii. 194, 380-1, 433-4; Ogilby's Am., 263-4; Alaman, Hist. Mex., i. 25, 44-57, 113-14; iii. 25; Calvo, Annales Hist., i. 1-10; Zamora, Bib. Leg., iv. 214-26, 523-37; Moreno, Reglas Ciertas, passim; Greenhow's Or. and Cal., 104–5; Id., Memoir, 34; Dicc. Univ., viii. 735-6; x. 442-3; Emigrado Observador, 5-24; Zuñiga y O., Calend., 37-46; Young's Hist. of Mex., 61; Guia de Forasteros, 1797, 47-78, 107-35; Gutierrez, Leyes de Ref., 528-36; Ribadeneira, Compendio, 1-531; Diario Mex., i., passim; ii. 195, 337-9; iii. 491-2; iv. 10-36, 389-90, 407; v. 4, 525-30; vi. 29-31; vii. 418; viii. 108, 214-15, 408-60; ix. 699–70; x. 127, 528; xii. 396, 644; xiii. 27, 152, 267, 416, 700; Gazeta Mex., i. 8-127; ii. 235, 411; iii. 130, 153, 410; iv. 16-92; v. 3–8, 276; x. 106–17; xii. 4; xiv. 160-6.





SILVER and gold! Silver and gold! The image and measure of wealth; the shadow, superior to substance, before which throughout the ages all men bow; what magic spells these metals cast upon the destinies of mankind! Without referring to the earlier mining fields of history, the Ophir of the Jews, the Pactolian placers of the Greeks, and the gold-producing colonies of the Romans, there is enough to command present attention in our Pacific States territory, throughout the length and breadth of which nature strewed liberally the precious metals. In the present volume I shall speak only of the deposits of Central America and Mexico; accounts of those of the northern regions will appear in the subsequent divisions of this historical series. As there is pleasing fiction in their value, so there is fascinating romance in their story.

'On the beautiful chromo-lithograph maps of the Munich collection, executed under the direction of Prof. Kunstmann, gold-bearing regions are desig

Gold and godliness were the two great engines which drove on the Spaniards to overrun and occupy the lands discovered by Columbus. The dissolute indulgence of these passions, so opposite, and yet in them so strangely blended, resulted not alone in the extermination of the Americans, but reacting upon themselves, dimmed the ancient glory of Spain, and sent rottenness to the bones of the then most powerful nation of Europe. "In that climate," says Gomara, "as in Peru the people turn yellow. It may be that the desire for gold which fills their hearts shines forth in their faces." Some claim to have computed that during the first century after the conquest of Peru there went from the New World to Spain silver enough to make a bridge across the Atlantic, a yard and a half wide, and two inches thick, or that brought together in a heap it would overtop the mountains of Potosí!

In Española, immediately after the discovery of America, one piece of gold was found weighing 3,200 castellanos. Miners obtained from six to 250 castellanos a day. In the ships which perished with Bobadilla, gold to the value of 200,000 castellanos was lost. In the year 1501 Rodrigo de Bastidas and Juan de la Cosa exchanged with the natives of Darien hawksbells and glass beads for pearls and the golden ornaments of the naked savages. In 1502 Columbus had no sooner landed upon the coast of Honduras than

nated by gold-colored or gilt spots. On map no. iv., supposed to have been drawn by Salvat de Pilestrina about 1515, gold is indicated in our territory only on the Pearl Islands. Map of Fernando Colon, 1527, represents gold in Castilla del Oro, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Yucatan, and none on the islands. Map no. vi., the maker not known, but supposed to have been drawn between the years 1532 and 1540, has gold indicated on the Pearl Islands, the island of teguante paque in the vicinity of Tehuantepec, island of sancius tomas (Santo Tomás), off cape St Lucas, two islands off the coast of Lower California called madalena and los cazones. Map no. vii., by Baptista Agnese, 1540-50, Pearl Islands, Iucatan, Yucatan which is represented as an island, two small islands off the southern coast of Central America, called y de guerra and y de gatos. Further north off Tehuantepec the island teguante paque. Off Sinaloa one small island sorata. Maps nos. x., xi., xii., by Vaz Dourado, 1571, a multitude of islands on both shores of Central America and Mexico are represented as gold-bearing. None of the interior is so colored.

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his mind was excited by reports of distant realms, where gold was found in such abundance that the commonest utensils of the inhabitants were made of that metal. What may have been vague rumors of the civilized kingdoms of Mexico and Peru was construed by the heated imagination of the great admiral to mean no other than the gorgeous cities of the Genghis Kahn. Along the coast of Honduras the natives wore ornaments which they called guanin, an inferior quality of gold. No pure gold was found until the discoverers had arrived at a bay of Costa Rica, called by the natives Caribaro, a place well known to the inhabitants of Honduras as rich in gold. Here pure gold was worn by the natives in plates suspended from the neck by cotton cords. They also exhibited rude imitations of eagles and other objects in guanin. Perceiving with what cupidity the strangers regarded their golden ornaments, the Indians of Čaribaro informed the Spaniards that two days' journey easterly along the coast would bring them to a province called Veragua, where that metal was found in abundance, and where all their ornaments were fabricated. This Indian province of Veragua was situated on what is now known as the river Veragua running through the north-western corner of what was later the state of Panamá. The earnest desire of the admiral to find a passage to India prevented his landing at that point on his downward passage; but failing to find a strait, and the supply of gold growing less as he departed from this point, he returned to Veragua, anchored his ships, and prepared to examine the mines of that country. The adelantado, Bartholomew Columbus, on the 6th of February 1503 set out with sixty-eight armed men,

2 Of the two Cariaians whiche he brought with him from Cariai, he was enfourmed that the regions of Cerabaro and Aburema were rich in gold, and that the people of Cariai have al their gold from thence for exchange of other of their thinges. They tolde him also, that in the same regions there are five villages, not farre from the sea side, whose inhabitantes applie themselves onely to the gathering of gold. The names of these villages are these, Chirara, Puren, Chitaya, Cureche, Atamea.' Peter Martyr, dec. iii. cap. 4.

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