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title changed to Varia Historia de la Nueva España y Florida, which are cited by Nicolás Antonio, Bib. Hist. Nova, iii. 175.

As shown in the title the work consists of a series of biographies of the more prominent Dominican friars who flourished in Mexico between 1540 and 1500, in connection with whose lives, which consist largely of tedious and prolix descriptions of saintly virtues and miracles, occasional historical facts are given, but often without dates. The style, which was not uncommon anong the religious writers of that period, is rather that of a sermon than of a historical narrative. While in Spain Felipe III. appointed him general chronicler of the Indies and royal chaplain, and he was also named general chronicler of his order. In 1599 he was made archbishop of Santo Domingo, where he died in 1604. According to Alcedo, Bib. Am., i. 321, he received the appointment of bishop of Santo Domingo, but Nicolás Antonio, Bib. Hisp. Nova, iii., whose statements are to be preferred, says of him, 'fervidus atque facundus ecclesiastes, insula Sancti Dominici tandem creatus archiepiscopus.' A manuscript work entitled Historia de los Antigüedades de los Indios is also attributed to Davila-Padilla by Alcedo.

Cyriaci Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbis et Ordinationum Apostolicarum ad Indias pertinentium breviarium cum Adnotationabus Venetiis, 1776, 4to, pp. viii. 642, is the pseudonyme of a Spanish Jesuit named Domingo Muriel, who was a professor of his order at Tucuman. He prepared his work in Italy, after the expulsion of his order from the Spanish dominions. He died at Faenza in 1795, and the book was published by A. Zatta. The first part of the volume is a brief compendium in chronological order of the chief events connected with the history of the Spanish American colonies from the discovery of America until 1771. This is valuable chiefly because of the author's correction of errors made by other writers. Then follow in chronological order the papal ordinances on questions of ecclesiastical government and the like, arising between those dates. Most of these ordinances apply to America in general, while a few are entirely local. Many of them are accompanied by valuable notes in which the author has brought together all papal decrees and royal ordinances bearing upon the subject under consideration. He also quotes frequently and extensively from a vast array of authors wh contain matters german to those discussed.

Disturbios de Frailes, fol., 2 vols, the first with 525 pages, and the second with 465 pages, is the title given to a collection of documents, printed and in manuscript, mostly of the latter, relating to the religious history of America, chiefly New Spain, and embracing the period between 1524 and 1811. A large portion of the collection refers to the constant bickerings between friars born in Spain and friars born in America about the distribution of offices in their respective orders, and the measures upheld by some and objected to by others to settle the question and secure peace and harmony. Another large portion treats of the differences between the regular and secu. lar clergy on the subject of curacies of parishes, with a long list of complaints by Indians of Puebla against the bishop and his clergy. Among the most important documents are those relating to trials of religious by the secular judiciary, and claims of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction in favor of the accused; one of the cases being that of a friar who murdered his prelate in 1789, and

FRANCISCAN RECORDS.

the other of three Augustinian friars for political offences in 1811. General information is given on the Franciscan province of the Santo Evangelio in 1702, and on two parish churches in 1789. The state of society in Mexico is described in letters answering a pastoral letter of the archbishop in 1803.

Papeles Franciscanos, MS., fol., in two volumes, the first with 568 rp., and the second with 342, is the general title given to a collection of letters, orders, and other documents connected with the church in general, and the Franciscan order in particular, nearly all being original, and furnishing not only most important datà upon ecclesiastical history and affairs from the earliest days of the religious orders in Mexico and Central America down to the early part of the nineteenth century, but also complete lists of the prelates that ruled the Franciscans.

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Providencias Diocesanas de México y Otras Superiores, MS., 4to, 521 pp., is a collection of copies and memorandums of decrees issued by the archbishop of Mexico to the clergy of his archdiocese, including other documents, among them some royal and viceregal orders, for the eighteenth century, the first few years of the nineteenth, and a few papers dating back to the seventeenth century. Much of the material is important, throwing light not only upon ecclesiastical but also on secular affairs of New Spain.

Ayeta, Defensa de la Verdad consagrada á la luz de la Justicia (about 1683), fol. 302 1. The king by cédulas of 1678 and 1682 having empowered the bishop to enforce a surrender of certain curacies to the clergy, the Franciscans of the Jalisco provincia became alarmed and indignant. Their remonstrances took the form of a ponderous printed tome of argument upon the respective rights of bishops and friars, the pages of which are laden with learned extracts from civil and ecclesiastical law, and the margins bristling with Latin citations. The author, Fray Francisco de Ayeta, was procurador general of the order, and about the same time addressed to his Majesty a memorial Representacion por los Franciscanos, fol. 15 1., on the subject of the privileges of friars, at the conclusion of which he implores the king to relieve his order from the oppression to which it was subjected, or grant that the question might be carried to Rome. Leon, Martin de, Manval Breve, y Forma de administrar los Santos Sacramentos á los Indios, Mexico, 1640, sm. 4to, ll. 54. A rare book, which as its name implies contains regulations as to the mode of administering the sacraments to the Indians. Ribadeneyra, Antonio Joaquin de, Manual Compendio de el Regio Patronato Indiano. Madrid, 1755, 4to, ll. 22, pp. 531. A prolix work on church patronage of the crown, designed for the assistance of governors and rulers in the Indies. It contains, moreover, some information on the working of the religious orders. Various papal bulls are cited, copies of which in Latin, with Spanish translations, are supplied at the end of the volume. Bernal y Malo, Waldo Indalecio, Alegato presentado en el año de 1792 al Escmo e Illmo Sr Arzobispo. This is a treatise in defence of ecclesiastical privilege. The occasion which gave rise to its production was the murder of the comendador of the Merced order in Mexico by Fray Jacinto Miranda. The manuscript having fallen into the hands of A. V. y Moya, he had it printed and published in Oajaca in 1844.

Figueroa, Fr Franco Anto de la Rosa. Becerro Gen! Menológico y crono

lógico de todos los Religiosos que...ha habido en esta Sta Prova del Santo Evangelio, MS. (copy), 1764, fol. 33 pages, in Paps Francnos I., 1st ser. 13–51, no. I, contains a great deal of information on the foundation and workings of the Franciscans in the various provinces of Mexico, Michoacan, Jalisco, Zacatecas, Yucatan, Guatemala, Florida, and the Philippine Islands down to the year he wrote. It was evidently a much longer work, giving the names of all the friars who served in said provinces, and particulars respecting them-all this is missing. Beaumont, Friar Pablo de la Purísima Concepcion. Crónica de la Provincia de los Santos Apóstoles San Padro y San Pablo de Michoacan... Mex. 1873-4, 12mo, 5 vols. (pp. 582, 544, 567, 630, 632, respectively); fol., MS., 1 vol., pp. 1183, and 8 sheets of Indian paintings.

The author had been educated in Paris as a physician, and afterward became tired of the world and joined the Franciscan order. Having come to Mexico he was assigned to Michoacan, where he served; but his uncertain health not allowing of his devoting himself to the more active duties of a missionary, he undertook the work of recording the chronicles of his province. He had intended to bring them down to 1640, and had prepared a vast plan, that he was not permitted to accomplish, sickness and death putting an end to his labors when he had recorded events only to 1565-6, though in some parts of his narrative are mentioned those of a later date. The work was probably written in the latter part of the 18th century-the last dates spoken of therein being of 1777—and breaks off with only a few pages in the third book. He was not satisfied with merely fulfilling the pious duty (of itself a laborious one) of chronicling the missionary life and services of the Franciscan and other religious orders, as well as of the church in general, within the region comprised in the Franciscan 'custodia' (as first constituted), and 'provincia' (as it became in 1566), of Michoacan and Jalisco, but taking up history from the earliest time of the western continent, gave an introduction, called by him Aparato, containing a narrative of events from the discovery of America to the capture of the Aztec capital by Cortés.

For the purpose of his work he gathered, as he tells us, a large quantity of MSS. and authentic documents, from which and from pertinent printed material (some 30 standard writers, with whom he at times disagrees) he drew his information, forming a collection of historical facts relating to the interior provinces, as far as New Mexico, and even to general history. Of many of the documents he gives full copies. The last part gives general remarks on Michoacan, physically and politically considered, from 1525 to 1566, and quite full information on agriculture, food of the natives, etc. The style of the work, like that of most writings of churchmen of that period, is too prolix, and confused at times; the writer's judgment is often open to doubt, and his Spanish somewhat defective, which Beaumont himself attributes to his education in Paris; but such drawbacks must be overlooked, and the importance of the material chiefly considered. The Indian paintings at the end of the MS. copy give incidents of the first visits of the Spaniards to Michoacan, their reception by the Tarascans, labors of Franciscan priests, establishment of the episcopal see, litigation anent the capital of the province, and the last sheet gives colored drawings of coats-of-arms of the principal cities of Michoacan. My manuscript copy was taken from the Mexican archives.

CHURCH CHRONICLERS.

Of the Aparato above alluded to, Bustamante (C. M.) published an edition, Historia del Descubrimiento de la América Septentrional por Cristóbal Colon, escrita por R. P. Fr. 'Manuel de la Vega, of the Franciscan province of the Santo Evangelio de México, Mex., 1826, 4to, an incomplete, untrue, and useless edition. Vega, placed as the author, was but the owner of the MS. which served Bustamante as original. Beristain does not know of the Crónica, but refers to the author as a doctor and man of the world before he took the habit.

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The authorities I have consulted on church affairs, utilizing facts pertinent to the subject, have been: Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Eclesiástico, and Torquemala, Monarchia Indiana, on the history of the older dioceses and the religious orders; Concilios Provinciales, 1o y 2°, and Concilios Mexicanos, iii. iv., for the general rules adopted by the several episcopal councils of Mexico for the government of the church, and for biographies of bishops; Vetancur, Tratado de la Ciudad de México, and Vetancurt, Ménologio; Grijalua, Chrónica de San Agustin; Medina, Chrónica de San Diego; Michoacan, Provincia de San Nicolás, Basalenque, Historia de San Nicolás; Florencia, Historia de la Compañía de Jesus, and Alegre, Historia de la Compañía de Jesus; for the chronicles of the religious orders to which the authors respectively belonged. Humboldt, Essai Politique, has furnished much valuable matter on general history and statistics. Another contributor, valued for his well considered opinions upon religious policy and history, is Lúcas Alaman, Historia de Méjico, and Disertaciones. Other writers of more modern date, and cntitled to more or less credit for arriving at the view taken by them of ecclesiastical policy and conduct from both the Spanish and Mexican standpoint, have been duly considered. Among these the chief one is Francisco Sosa, Episcopado Mexicano, who gives biographies of the archbishops of Mexico from the earliest colonial time to the latest days; out of this work I have obtained a great deal of information on the rule of each archbishop, and consequently on the relations of church and state, thus at the same time furnishing much interesting matter of a secular nature. As the reader will perceive, a very long list of writers has been carefully read, and some important item culled out of each. But among the sources that have afforded me useful and incontrovertible data, and to which I must give a prominent place, have been the several collections of papal briefs or bulls, and royal cédulas for the government of the church, that I possess; some of them being in print, such as Morelli, Fasti Novi Orbi, Recopilacion de Indias, Beleña, Recopilacion, Montemayor, Svmarios, and Zamora, Biblioteca de Legislacion Ultramarina, and a large number in manuscript; the reports of several viceroys to their immediate successors, and edicts of the court of the inquisition issued with the view of checking immoral practices of the clergy, and generally for the promotion of public morals. Some of the original manuscripts throw light upon the mode of procedure of that dread tribunal. Other important sources have been also the Gacetas de Mexico, from 1784 to 1805, and several preceding and succeeding numbers. The manuscripts alluded to are: Papeles Franciscanos, Figueroa, Vindicias de la Verdad, Providencias Diocesanas, and Disturbios de Frailes, which are filled with ecclesiastical matter, particularly laws and decrees; Órdenes de la Corona, Rescriptos Reales, Disposiciones Varias, Cedulario, Reales Cédulas, Providencias Reales, Varias Anotaciones de las Leyes, and other collections, the names of all of which indicate their contents.

For broader references the reader may consult the following: Ordenes de la Corona, MS., i. 31 et seq.; ii., passim; iii. 81, 134, 169-73; iv. 21 et seq.; v. 1-7, 31-85, 100, 106-9, 121-7; vi. 65, 117-30, 143-6; vii. 11, passim; Dávila, Continuacion, MS., 193 et seq.; Figueroa, Vindicias, MS., 1-80, 114–25, 129-38, 148; Disturbios de Frailes, MS., i., passim; ii. 1-5, 37, 129-227, 242-5, 331-40; Papeles Franciscanos, MS., i. 13, 64, 80, 222-46, 375, 378, 414, 473, 564; ii. 67-72, 154, 178-200, 253-67, 312-13; Azanza, Ynstruc., MS., 95-103; Providencias Reales, MS., 52 et seq.; Sierra, Dictámen, MS., 351501; Reales Cédulas, MS., i. 27-35, 73-83, 90-2, 192-6, 200-13; ii. 53-4, 116-18, 124-58, 239-41; Provincia de S. Diego, MS., 148-67; Papeles de Jesuitas, MS., 1-31; Pinart, Col. Doc. Misiones, passim; Id., Doc. Son., MS., i. 6-14; Id., Doc. Chih., MS., i. 6-7; Veitia Linage, Cuatro Imagenes, MS., passim; Proceso sobre Religiosos, MS., passim; Enriquez, Proceso y Causa Criminal, MS., passim; Mex., Providencias Diocesanas, MS., passim; Dur., Doc. Hist., MS., 51-9; Ximenez, Inquisidor fiscal contra, MS., passim ; Fund. Prov. Santiago, MS., 7; Sigüenza y Góngora, Carta al Almirante, MS., 10-15; Id., Glorias de Quer., 11-37; Id., Parayso Occid., 39, passim; Nueva España, Breve Res., MS., i. 141; Rescriptos Reales Ecles., MS., 8, passim; Bernal y Malo, Defensa Prov. Merced., MS., passim; Morf, Col. Doc., MS., 26-33; Tamayo, Al Regente Romá, MS., passim; Lobo, Relacion, MS., 1; Monumentos Domin. Esp., MS., 19 et seq.; Galvez, Informe del Visitador, MS., 64–81; Grambila, Tumultos, MS., 1; Coloquio entre Sophronico y Leonido, MS., passim; Concilio Prov., MS., iv. 206; Vireyes de Mex., Instruc., MS., 3, 12; Recop. de Indias, i., passim; Cedulario, MS., i. 49–77; iii. 63, passim; Doc. Ecles. Mex., MS., i. 1, 5, 8; ii. 1-3; iii. 1-3; iv. 2-5; v. 1-3; Reales Ordenes, i. 447-9; v. 167-72, 244-59; vi. 65-8; Branciforte, Instruc., MS., 44-6; Col. Doc. Inéd., xxi. 469-85, 512-18; Gomez, Diario, 20, passim; Robles, Diario, i.-ii., passim; Rivera, Diario, 11 et seq.; Doc. Hist. Mex., serie ii. tom. i. 7-100; iv., passim; Colon, Juzgados Militares, i. 224-43; Diezmos de Indias, nos. iv. vi. x.-xiv.; Constitucion Fiel y Literal, passim; Breve Apostolico, passim; Fabian, Col. Providencias, passim; Zavaleta, Carta, passim; Revilla Gigedo, Instruc., MS., i., passim; Id., Bandos, 2, 4-14, 54, 60, 81-2; Arévalo, Actas Ayunt. Guat., 128-9; Montemayor, Semarios, 3-56; Cedulario Nuevo, i. 390; Nuevo Mex., Cédulas, MS., 301-2; Guijo, Diario, i. 4, passim; Disposiciones Varias, i. 78; iii. 152; v. 13, 533; vi., passim; Leyes, Varias Anotaciones, 4, passim; Guat., Col. Cédulas Reales, passim; 63-202; Beleña, Recop., i. 212-17, 291, 336-40; ii. 387-8; Pacheco and Cárdenas, Col. Doc., vi. 324; xvii. 290-1; Gonzalez Dávila, Theatro Ecles., i., passim; ii. 15-16, 33-43, 64; Arlegui, Prov. Zac., 49, passim; Puga, Cedulario, 27, 78, 112, 210; Calle, Mem. y Not., 45, passim; Vetanevrt, Chron. Sto. Evang., 24-135; Id., Menologio, 11, passim; Id., Trat. Ciudad Mex., 26-53; Alegre, Hist. Comp., i. 201-3; ii. 15, passim; iii. 8, passim; Salguero, Vida, passim; Medina, Chron. S. Diego, 11, passim; Id., Vida Rodriguez, passim; Castro, Diario, 6 et seq.; Espinosa, Chron. Apost., 12, passim; Morelli, Fast. Nov. Orb., 151, passim; Juarros, Guat., i. 324, 360; Id., Compendio, 288-98, 322-6, 359; Santos, Chro nologia Hospitalaria, 433-98; Mota Padilla, Cong. N. Galicia, 178, 184, 346, 509; Villagutierre, Hist. Cong. Itza, 186-7; Remesal, Hist. Chyapa, 302-15, 473-4, 693-9, 704-8; Torquemada, i. 337; iii. 337-82; Villa-Señor y Sanchez, Theatro, i. 28-53, 241-58; ii. 28, 205, passim; Mendieta, Hist. Ecles., 546; Robles, Vida Cuevas, 122–34, 304–5; Gage's Voyage, ii. 67-50; Iglesias y Conventas de Mex., 65–8, 245–61, 316–20; Iglesia Catedral, Reglas y Orde nanzas, passim; Iglesias San Miguel, Relacion Sencilla, passim; Gonzalez, N. Leon, 15, 98-107, 122, 152, 373-7: Tumultos de Mex., MS., 2-7; Fernandez, Hist. Ecles., 134-6; Fernando VII., Decretos, 86-90; Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii 112-13; iii. 1-5, 29-30; iv. 175-9; Alcedo, Dicc., i. 108, 493; ii. 245–6; iii. 141; Arricirita, Crón. Seráfica, passim; Cabrera, Escudo Armas, 97-106, 170–1; Campillo, Nuevo Sistema, 43-51; Zúñiga y O., Calendario, 34–79; Ladron de Guevara, Manifiesto, 14, passim; Navarrete, Trat. Hist., 295-6; Id., Rel. Peregrina, ii. 14, passim; iii. 3, passim; Prov. Mich., 111-215; Beau

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