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SPANISH Americans present the distinct features of what may be essentially classed as a new race, sprung from the union of the proudest of European peoples, and the most advanced of Americans; the former itself an anomalous mixture, wherein lay blended the physical and mental characteristics of half a dozen nations, from sturdy Goth to lithe and fiery Arab;1 the other possibly autochthonic, and evolved amidst the rise and fall of mighty empires, whose records are entombed in the most imposing monuments of the continent. While the latter may be divided into two great branches, the Maya and Nahua, originally cradled perhaps within the region drained by the

1 See introduction to Hist. Cent. Am., i. this series, for the evolution and characteristics of Spaniards.

Humboldt, who favors an Asiatic origin for the Americans, sees in this meeting with the Spaniard a reunion of two branches that once parted on the plains of Asia in opposite directions. Essai Pol., i. 134–5. The different theories on origin are discussed in Native Races, v. chapter i. this series.

Usumacinta, yet they consist of a large number of nations, distinct in language, and differing greatly in culture, such as the Otomís, Zapotecs, Tarascos, and the representative Aztecs, forming a greater variety even than that which could be distinguished on the Iberian peninsula at the opening of the conquest. There was, therefore, no homogeneity of race which might prevent intermingling, while the geographic features of the country with its profound influence on race development presented similarities to the new-comers that brought involuntarily to their lips the name New Spain, by which term it was thereafter for a time known. Although the name was first pronounced upon the seaboard, these resemblances existed more particularly on the high table land where a temperate clime had lured to settlement and culture most of the nations referred to. Here flourished the cereals and fruits of Spain, wheat and barley by the side of maize and maguey, while the slopes of lofty ranges, under snow-crowned peaks, stood clad in rugged firs. In the sheltered valley grew the sugar-cane and indigo, and on either side of the plateau a fringe of heated coast line revelled in all the luxuriance of tropic nature. But this line was comparatively narrow, and so scantily occupied as to have little influence on Mexican development. A strange commingling truly of peoples and of climates to form a new race, with characteristics now modified, now intensified, the inheritor of past glories, the guardian of a transplanted culture. Even two of the carth's great divisions did not suffice to create it, for during early stages already a third element was infused by negroes from the dark continent, with a slight sprinkling from the fourth part of the world by Chinese and Malays. The latter have never been counted as an element however, and the recognized mixed breeds are mestizos, mulattoes, and zambos, or Indian zambos,3 with their degrees of admixture.

The term for the offspring of negroes and Indians varies in different countries, and even the lexicographers are at a loss. They have been called


Of the three original races the Indian, which may be regarded as the mother, presents a less favorable appearance by the side of the symmetrical and brighteyed Spaniard and the tall and muscular negro. While different provinces exhibit marked variations in stature, build, and comeliness, the general verdict must be that the aborigine is neither handsome nor graceful; nor has he the strength and adaptability of the others. The long black hair is thick and glossy, but the beard is so scant as to render more marked the uniformity of type in the black elongated eyes set widely apart, the oval face, with its narrow forehead, the prominent cheek-bones, and the large lips. The complexion varies from olive to brown and copper color, in certain districts with a yellowish or bluish tinge, and inclining to black. in the torrid region. The mestizo throws off many of these attributes, and may be classed as more intelligent and handsome, with fine eyes and hair, but he is generally small of stature, inclined to corpulency, and lacks energy and strength.5 The mulattoes inherit the vivacity of their dark sires, and unite with it greater industry. The zambos are ugly, fiery, and turbulent. Indeed, gentleness and beauty increase with the proportion of white admix



Whatever may be the case with mulatto castes the intermarriage of mestizos certainly does not tend toward sterility. Under favorable skies like those of California their fecundity has been surprising, and in

zambos in decrees within New Spain, and especially Caracas; yet at Mexico, Habana, and Lima, chino was a common appellation, and in the latter place also Chino-cholo. Zambo by itself more generally denotes three fourths of black admixture, and zambo prieto seven eighths. deepening of color is termed salto atras, 'back-leap,' and a heightening by greater mingling with white, tente en el aire, 'holding one's self in the air.' The Asiatic mixture was brought by the Philippine fleets.

The Indian type is fully considered in Native Races, i.-ii., and the Spanish in Hist. Cent. Am., i. introd., this series.

The hands and feet are usually praised and the teeth condemned.

The odor of the different races can be distinguished also in the castes; and for the different effluvia the Peruvians have distinct names. Humboldt, Essai Pol., i. 136.

'Navarro applies this in general to half-castes: 'la fecundidad notoria de

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