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ARRIVAL OF CERRALVO.

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and two children," and some eighty attendants and officers, four of them knights. He was joined by oidores appointed to replace certain members of the doubtful audiencia, and by Martin de Carrillo, inquisitor of Valladolid, the latter bearing special instructions to investigate the outbreak and see to the punishment of the guilty. The party sailed in the fleet of General Chavez and reached Vera Cruz in September 1624.31 On the way to Mexico they were detained at different places by demonstrations, addresses, and petitions, and courted by a host of seekers for favors or clemency, in view of the prospective reforms and punishments to be ordained. At Puebla the reception was particularly brilliant with triumphal arches, processions, bull-fights, and other performances. The bishop here sought to win the good graces of the marchioness by presenting a casket with perfumes and the like, all mounted in gold. The lady kept the perfume alone, returning the rest, whereat the prelate is said to have felt deeply mortified.32

33

Cerralvo entered Mexico informally toward the end of October, conferred for some time with Gelves, and inquired into the state of affairs. One result was that he determined first to restore the dignity of his office, and to this end ordered the removal of the name of Gelves from the excommunication tablet and his reinstallation. This was a bitter pill to the higher officials, notably the oidores; but the new members of the audiencia assisted to overrule objec

30 Vetancurt mentions only one, a daughter who died at Mexico in 1631. Trat. Mex., 14.

31 On approaching this place two fast sailers advanced to gather news, and met cruising off the harbor two vessels sent by the audiencia to anticipate the report of any such arrival and what it might bode. Urrutia, ubi sup.

32Pienso que el despego tan impensado sirve de azada para abrirle en breve la sepultura.' Urrutia, Rel., in Mex. y sus Disturbios, MS., i. 443. Gifts from Gaviria were also declined.

33 Urrutia relates that Gelves made a return visit to Chapultepec where the marchioness received him kneeling and in tears. Gelves also knelt and wept till Cerralvo made both rise.

34 Portillo, the provisor then in charge of the diocesan affairs, made objections, but Cerralvo peremptorily ordered obedience, and intimated that he had power to deal summarily even with prelates.

tions. On the 30th of October the municipality, with the best grace possible, issued proclamations in accordance with the order, declaring their joy at the prospective re-entry of their viceroy on the morrow, and ordering a pompous celebration with salvos and fireworks to testify" the affection which the city entertained for the marquis."

On the 31st a vast procession of officials, nobles, gentry, and prominent citizens appeared at the convent, whence the troops had been removed, and hat in hand the oidores made their bow. Gelves vaulted into the saddle and was escorted to the palace. Along the very streets so lately trodden by him as a decried fugitive shielded by the darkness, he now proceeded with the pomp of a victor, beneath arches and festoons, amid salvos and ringing of bells, beneath floral showers from fair hands, and amid the thundering cheers of countless spectators, who now and then made a diversion by cursing the oidores and other enemies of their beloved viceroy. At the palace gate he was actually caught in the arms of the fickle populace and carried to where Cerralvo stood to receive him. In the evening came festivities with illumination and fireworks. Gelves did not, however, expect to assume executive power, for this he regarded as already vested in Cerralvo. He merely came to triumph. The next day he left the palace, and followed this time by a sorrow-stricken crowd entered the Franciscan convent at Tacuba, there to await his residencia.37

The popular demonstrations at his entry and departure were by no means so insincere as at first glance might appear. An interval of eight months had calmed men's passions considerably, and the rule of the audiencia had tended to exalt in the eyes of most citizens the salutary strictness of the overthrown gov

35 Mex., Rel. Estado, 30.

36 At all the temples, save the cathedral, the Jesuit houses, and the Carmelite convent.

Urrutia, Rel., MS., i. 441-61.

INVESTIGATIONS.

ernment. The annulling of Gelves' many reforms, the setting aside of pending indictments and verdicts, the permission so generally given to carry arms, greatly contributed to promote corruption and disorder among all classes. Monopolies again appeared in force to raise prices and grind the poor, aided by dishonest officials; rich and influential criminals bought themselves free, while humbler law-breakers languished in prison. Varaez appeared on the street with great ostentation, and proceeded to his alcaldia mayor to submit to residencia, accompanied by fifty horsemen, who were no doubt intended to intimidate honest witnesses. Bandits again began to crowd the highways and commit depredations with impunity, and affairs assumed so forlorn an aspect that many became loud in their desire for the restoration of Gelves.39

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On the Sunday following the nominal reinstallation of his predecessor, Cerralvo took formal possession of office as fifteenth viceroy," and prepared to extend the needed reforms, yet in a manner more conciliatory and affable than that of Gelves, so as to gain general good will. He showed also greater regard for some of the old oidores than had been expected, Valecillo being recommended for promotion and Gaviria intrusted with several honorable commissions."1

The residencia of Gelves was proclaimed with more than usual formality, owing to the peculiar circumstances of his rule. Fully two hundred witnesses came from different parts to testify, the trial lasting fifteen months. In connection with this inquisition Carrillo

38 He seized his denouncer Soto and forced him with threats to declare his testimony false. Soto afterward reaffirmed his statements. Mex., Rel. Svm.,

12.

39 Yet such expressions were promptly suppressed. The oidores and regi dores made money by selling monopoly licenses. Grambila, Tumultos, MS., 1215. No energetic efforts were put forth to recover the booty taken from the palace and other places during the riot, although a part was recovered. Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. iii. 92–3, 151-2.

40 November 3d, it appears, though Cavo and others place this as the date of his arrival at Mexico. Tres Siglos, i. 276.

A nephew of the latter was appointed asesor to the viceroy. Mex., Rel. Estado, 30. Gelves does not appear to have been quite pleased with this.

also investigated the conduct of all concerned in the riot, including ecclesiastics by special assent of the pope, yet with prudent leniency, for it was not politic to stir the more powerful spirits. Examples were made among the less formidable. Many of these anticipated events by flight, but several officials including two oidores were removed, four of those who led in the outbreak were executed, and five ecclesiastics who had hurried away to Spain were sent to the galleys. In a proclamation to the people Cerralvo announced that the trial had convinced the king of their loyalty. The outbreak was evidently caused by rancor against the marqués de Gelves personally. Filled with a desire to affirm their love and remove even the suspicion of disloyalty among vassals of Spain, his Majesty decreed that all who were arraigned or in prison for supposed complicity in the riot should be released unconditionally."

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Archbishop Serna was among those who had hurried out of the way to Spain. The effect of his conduct in causing riot and overthrow of the royal representative must have startled him when sober second thought prevailed. His position became uncomfortable; he felt that he must personally plead his cause at court, and in the spring of 1624 he departed from Mexico. The desire to anticipate the disgrace of a recall may have been an additional motive. Highly commendatory letters were given to him by the municipality and others, and, still warm in their zeal,

42 Urban VIII., Cartas, in Tumultos de Mex., MS., 141.

43 Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. iii. 123-4; Cavo, Tres Siglos, i. 277. Charges being made that Cerralvo had unduly favored Gelves and influenced the inquisidor, testimony was taken with an almost unanimous approval of the viceroy's course. In this document appear the following as new members of audiencia: Oidores Juan de Álvarez Serrano, Don Antonio Canseco, Miguel Ruiz de la Torre, Juan de Villavena Cubiaurre, and fiscal Yñigo de Argüello y Carbajal. Oidor Avendaño remains. The officers of the visita are also named. Cerralvo, Inform., in Mex. y sus Disturbios, MS., ii. 221-477.

44 This did not exempt those already alluded to from punishment as traitors and robbers. Text of proclamation dated December 25, 1625, in Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. iii. 209-12; Tumultos de Mex., MS., 137-8. Before his departure Carrillo ordered city officials to give residencia. They protested and were exempted from a review of charges already passed by. Cedulario Nuevo, i. 336; Libro Capitular, pt. xxvi. 255.

ARCHBISHOP SERNA.

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the people contributed a hundred thousand pesos for his journey." A prelate whose obstinacy had been the chief cause for bringing into contempt a royal representative, and into peril the authority of the crown, so as to require costly and radical measures, such a man could not expect a welcome. He was certainly treated coldly; but the pope felt pleased with so firm a champion of the church, and recommended his cause to the king. Other influences were brought to bear; so that Serna was partially restored to favor and granted the important see of Zamora. He died in 1631, with the reputation of an able bishop and a benevolent man. His successor at Mexico, appointed in 1628, was Francisco Manzo y Zúñiga, one who as member of the India Council, and in other political positions, had been trained not to imperil royal interests for ecclesiastic prerogatives. So at least it was supposed.

46

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Gelves came off with honor from the residencia, as a righteous judge, zealous for the administration of justice, for the public good, and the service of the king. After the conclusion of the trial he left for Spain, and was well received. His delay in coming had allowed time to soften the remembrance of his unfortunate mishaps, for success is above all expected from the agent; and now his family influence could be wielded to greater advantage.

49

45 Mex., Rel. Svm., 13. In their letter the cabildo pray the king to send him back with greater power. Doc. Hist. Mex., série ii. tom. iii. 169-70. Cavo says that he was recalled to suffer humiliation for some time. Tres Siglos, i. 277.

46 Gonzalez Dávila attributes to him Carrillo's appointment as visitador. Teatro Ecles., i. 45. Lorenzana assumes continual favor for him with the king. Concilios Mex., 1555-65, 217. But this Sosa does not admit, although he does not agree with Cavo. Episc. Mex., 66. The representations of the pope in 1625, in his behalf, indicate that he did remain awhile under a cloud. Cartas, in Tumultos de Mex., MS., 139-40. But Lacunza's allusion to deep disgrace is not borne out. Disc. Hist., 491.

Sentencia, la dio el Visitador...en 14 de Abril de 1627.' Mex., Rel.

Estado, 31.

48 Several writers, followed by Zamacois, state that he left in 1624, but he himself declares that he remained in the convent fully a year after Cerralvo's inauguration. He appears to have sent a letter from Mexico on January 29, 1626. Id., 30.

19 He was related to the powerful conde duque de Olivares.

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