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SATISFACTORY as the rule of Viceroy Cadereita had been, the crown had, as it seems, some motive for his removal,' and the appointment of a successor was resolved upon. Diego Lopez Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla, duque de Escalona and marqués de Villena, a grandeef Spain, was the personage selected as seventeenth viceroy. He arrived at Vera Cruz the 24th of June 1640, though festivities in that city and at several points on the road delayed his entry into the capital until the 28th of August. In the same fleet came the new bishop of Puebla and visitador general for New Spain, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, with a


'Troubles with Archbishop Manso y Zuniga may have been the cause. The reprimand of the audiencia would also indicate grounds for complaint. 2 He was the first grandee that ever held the viceroyalty of New Spain. Calle, Mem. y Not., 56. Escalona was a relative to the dukes of Braganza in Portugal.

3 Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., zana, Hist. N. Esp., 22-3. Jalapa, i. 91, state that his arrival at Vera Cruz.

14, followed by Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 12; Loren-
Mayer, Mex. Aztec, i. 198, and Ribera, Hist.
entry into Mexico was made four days after his


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special commission to take the residencias of the former viceroys, Cerralvo and Cadereita, and to investigate the commercial relations with Peru and the Philippine Islands.

The new viceroy was a man of fair speech, and for a time won for himself the sympathies of the people, who expected from him a change for the better in the condition of affairs. At this period commerce and mining industries were depressed, and the common necessaries of life could be purchased only at exorbitant rates. Moreover the church was in a demoralized condition, and the religious brotherhoods ever at strife; the highest ecclesiastical dignity in New Spain being represented only by a deputy.

The beginning of Escalona's rule showed some activity. He had been ordered by the king to make explorations on the coast of California, and soon after his accession a commission was issued for that purpose to the governor of Sinaloa. Certain Jesuits accompanied the expedition; but the only purpose which it served was to ascertain that the coast was rich in pearls, and, though cheerless and barren, inhabited by peaceful tribes. In the mean time the viceroy aided effectually in carrying out the orders which had been given him for the reformation of the doctrinas, the execution of which rested with the visitador-bishop Palafox, an able, energetic man, whose name became intimately linked with that of Escalona, and with the greatest ecclesiastical strife which occurred during the seventeenth century.

Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was born in Fitero, Navarre, on the 24th of June 1600, and was of noble descent, though a natural son. When ten years old he was legitimized by his father, Jaime de Palafox y Mendoza, marqués de Ariza. Having received an educa


The losses sustained by shipwrecks and pirates during the preceding ten years were estimated at 30,000,000 pesos. Palafox, El Ven. Señor, 4-5.

5 The latter title has probably misled several authors, among them Vetancurt and Gonzalez Dávila, who give Ariza in Aragon as his birthplace. Trat. Mex., 52; Teatro Ecles., i. 98.

tion in keeping with his rank, he intended to enter the army, but being dissuaded by his father, he studied law and theology at Alcalá and Salamanca, where his talents won the admiration of his teachers and fellowstudents. His fame soon reached the ears of the king, who summoned him to court, and he was appointed in quick succession to several important offices in the council of the Indies, and of war. During this time he first entertained the idea of changing his worldly life for a more sacred calling, and a few years later was ordained a priest, being appointed, in 1629, chaplain and chief-almoner to the empress, whom he accompanied to Germany," where he remained for several years. On the 27th of December 1639 he was consecrated at Madrid, and on his arrival in New Spain, in June 1640, immediately entered upon his duties. His zeal and charity soon gained for him the love and obedience of his flock, while as visitador he knew so well how to temper justice with moderation that litigants highly respected his decisions. The only matter in which he displayed unwonted rigor was the removal of friars from doctrinas, and in this he was seconded by the viceroy.

For years great irregularities had prevailed in the appointments to doctrinas, or neophyte congregations, a great number of which the religious brotherhoods had held in their gift since the time of the conquest. Friars were installed and removed at will by their superiors, regardless of royal and pontifical decrees to the contrary, and of instructions directing candidates to be examined and approved by the bishop. Little or no attention was paid to the manner in which the doctrinas

Several miraculous escapes from danger had already predisposed him to this change, and the death of two prominent courtiers hastened his resolution. His mother, who had become a recluse, encouraged him. Palafox, Obras, xiii. 10, 15-47.

'He held also for some time the offices of a treasurer of the church of Tarasona and of an abbot of Cintra. Vetancvrt, Trat. Mex., 52; Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Ecles., i. 98. Lorenzana, in Concilios Prov., 1555-65, 251, mentions Palafox also as visitador of the royal convent of barefooted nuns of Madrid.

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were administered, the only object seeming to be the accumulation of wealth at the expense of others. The bishop at once resolved to correct this abuse, and meeting with resistance on the part of the friars, proceeded to deprive the orders of their missions. In a short time he had established thirty-seven new curacies, which formerly had belonged to the Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians. It must be admitted that in some instances he went too far, making a parish out of every district containing a small church or hermitage, if the ecclesiastics failed to appear before him during the short term granted for examination. Finally, when the religious orders realized their inability to battle successfully with the united powers of the bishop and the viceroy, they submitted under protest to the India Council, a measure which was of no avail to them, however, as the conduct of the bishop was approved. The general feeling of the population had doubtless been with the bishop, and they considered the great number of friars as a burden to the country, and one of little benefit; for a few years later petitions were addressed to Spain, urging that no more friars be sent to Mexico, and that no licenses be issued for new convents.



Although an intimate friendship seemed to exist between Escalona and Palafox, which found expression in the frequent visits they paid each other, the former had not been deaf to the complaints of the friars merely for the sake of the bishop's good-will. He required a more tangible compensation, which was nothing less than the assistance, or at least the non-interference, of the powerful visitador. Pleasure, and the acquisition of wealth, were dear to the heart of the viceroy. The duties of his office were a sore burden to him, and he

The Franciscans as the most numerous seem to have suffered most, judging from the long complaint of Vetancurt, who says that his order had to suffer many grievances. Only one Franciscan, of Atlixco, submitted to the bishop's demand, and having been approved, was left in undisturbed possession of his doctrina. Vetancvrt, Chron. San Evang., 14-16; Gonzalez Dávila, Teatro Ecles., i. 99. See also Cavo, Tres Siglos, ii. 13; Alaman, Disert., iii. app. 28.

willingly transferred them to his friends and courtiers, if they would only offer him opportunity for amusement, and his due share of the official perquisites. The best offices were thus given to the partisans of the duke, and by them resold to the highest bidder. Among other measures he was induced to order a census to be taken of all the mulattoes, negroes, and mestizos, but for what purpose does not appear, save that of swelling his own coffers, and those of his favorites. One of his attendants was put in charge of the granary, the stores of which were sold at excessive rates to the public; another was made judge of police and given charge of the public water works." A third was appointed juez de pulques under the pretext of enforcing the laws against the sale of intoxicating liquors, and made fifty thousand pesos a year by his office. The sale of cacao was also monopolized, and its price was so extravagant that only rich persons could afford to buy it.10

The people were loud in their complaints, but no whisper reached the ears of the viceroy, for his friends did their utmost to prevent him from learning how great was the dissatisfaction his measures had created. Representations were made to the bishop-visitador, who argued with Escalona, suggesting that if the offices were sold the proceeds ought to be turned over to the royal treasury. His counsel was disregarded by the duke, who was piqued by it, and afterward endeavored to keep aloof from him.12

The viceroy still wanted money to redeem his encumbered estates, and a new scheme was devised by his ingenious financiers. A list of wealthy persons

Even the salinous water sold at two and three reals a load, and its use caused diseases among the population.

10If thus the wealthier classes were unable to obtain it, how could it be with those who had no means, y con solo este desayuno ayunaban los dias y las noches.' Palafox, El Ven. Señor, 6.

11 His rooms, in the interior of the palace, were quite distant from that part of the building where the offices were situated, and to which the public had access.

12 Pareciéndole que en no oyendo culparse no sería culpado.' Palafox, El Ven. Señor, 7.

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