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because it bore somewhat the same relation to Lake Champlain as a beaver's tail'does to the beaver.'
'Horican' is no Indian name at all. When Mr. Cooper was preparing to write 'The Last of the Mohicans,' and seeking for the Indian name, he found the real one awkward and not over poetical. Looking at an old French map, he found a tribe designated as 'Les Ouricains' put down as living near the lake. Out of this word he made up the name 'Horican,' which one is now often told means 'Holy Water!' The French word was a blunder for Les Iroquois.'
The French name 'St. Sacrament' was given at the time of its discovery in 1649. The lake was entered on the eve of Corpus Christi Day-le jour du Saint Sacrement-and hence the name. The story that the name was given because the waters of the lake were used, on account of their purity, in baptism, is untrue.
The English name was given in 1755, in honour of George II. It ought to be kept, and I fancy it will be. The lake was seen, I believe, by Samuel Champlain, in 1609. He joined an expedition of Canadian Indians that year (in the summer) against the Iroquois, and the first gun ever fired in the northern part of the United States was fired during this expedition on Lake Champlain. It was the herald of the coming wars, and fired against the Iroquois it set them against the French. In 1649, Father Jogues entered the lake on May 29, and gave it its French name. He also calls it Andiatarocte, which is said to mean 'where the lake closes.'
It came first into notice in 1755, at the beginning, in America, of the Seven Years' War, and its whole story is one of battles and sieges. There is, to my mind, a picturesqueness in these wars which is specific and peculiar. Most Indian battles are wearisomely monotonous; it is all dodging behind trees and making ambushes. Civilised battles are monotonous also. Armies move in them like machines. In these wars there is room for individual prowess, and yet with it mingles the order and manoeuvring of trained troops. The white coats of France and the red coats of England, the Lily of the Bourbon, and the Cross of St. George, the tent of the soldier, and the wigwam or forest-fire of the Indian, the soldier in his uniform, the provincial in his hunting-shirt, the savage in his war-paint, are all mingled together in picturesque confusion in the virgin forest, on mountain and by lake.
That sudden uprising of the French soldiers in the boat on the waters of Lake George, and the discharge into the unsuspecting Indians, was the momentous shot 3 which, exasperating the whole of the great Iroquois tribe against the French, contributed in large measure to the ultimate decision of the preponderance of the English over the French cause in North America. The names of Colonel Williams, the founder of the Williams University, amidst the hills of the American Berkshire-of Fort William Henry from the Duke of Cumberland—the tragical story of Jane Macrea, which evidently furnished the basis of 'The Last of the Mohicans '-had already given a kind of celebrity to this romantic region when General Abercrombie led his expedition, on a flotilla, down the lake, including the Highland regi
* So I remember it was graphically and forcibly described by Bishop Coxe, with whom we crossed the Atlantic.
ment, in 1758, against the fortress of Ticonderoga, which commanded the whole region. There was a Scottish lady, then living as a girl in Albany. She watched the splendid array leave the town; she saw the dismal return. They advanced from Lake George across the neck of land which has to be crossed before the approach to the fortress. On that neck of land a preliminary skirmish occurred in which the young and gallant Lord Howe lost his life. He was beloved by Americans and English; he united the most austere sense of discipline with the most engaging attention to the wants of the soldiery and the most courteous attention to the society in which he so gracefully moved. It is he to whom the Province of Massachusetts Bay erected the monument, already mentioned, in Westminster Abbey, and to his memory, in these last few years, a memorial stone has been erected on the spot by the owner of the property: Near this spot fell, July 6, 1758, in a skirmish preceding Abercrombie's defeat by Montcalm, Lord George Augustus Howe, aged 34. Massachusetts erected a monument to him in Westminster Abbey. Ticonderoga places here this monument, 1776.' The brook by which he fell, once called Northbrook, is now called Lord Howe Brook."
The fortress stands in a commanding position, overhanging Lake Champlain. It is called by its Indian name Ticonderoga (abridged by modern Americans into Ti'), meaning the sounding of the waters. Champlain, the discoverer of the lake, had given it the corresponding name of Carillon- the chimes or melodies of the waters.' The river, in fact, forms a precipitous cascade as it falls from one lake to the other, and is traversed by more than one rude bridge. It turns the wheels of The Old King's Saw-mill.' The Old King's Store is on the promontory. It was taken by Judge Hay, a Scotsman. Local tradition maintains that his ancestor routed the English with his hickory club. Hence the King of Scotland called out Hey! Hey! Hey!' This is not the only Scottish name connected with Ticonderoga. The whole property belonged till recently to Edward Ellice, of Invergarry. Two conspicuous mountains look down on Ticonderoga, both connected with its after history. One is Mount Independence, from the proclamation of the Declaration of Independence there on July 18, 1776. The other is Sugar Loaf Hill, where General Burgoyne took the fortress at sunrise in 1777, and gave it the name of Mount Defiance, which it still retains. The fortress itself is now a ruin,—it may be said about the only ruin in the United States. One can figure the passage by which the giant
Mrs. Grant, in her Memoirs of an American Lady, p. 204–208.
The American mistakes of the title are observable.
The place got a bad name from the races on the ice. Ti' was synonymous with depravity. No God up there,' was a signboard on the lake.
See the account further on.
I saw this in a local history of Ticonderoga on the spot. It is needless to point out that this is an American version of the legend of the Battle of Luncaity.
Ethan Allen and the daring Arnold forced their way into the fort in 1776, and the window out of which appeared the surprised commander and his wife. But it is curious to see how short a time is needed to produce the venerable aspect of decay and age. Ticonderoga is as complete a ruin as Conway or Kenilworth. It was in the assault on this place that the great rout took place in which Campbell of Inverawe received his death-wound. Every officer of the 42nd was either killed or wounded. 10 I vainly sought for any indication of his sepulture. A mass of grassy hillocks at the foot of the hill alone marked the graves of the British officers.
Thy green earth, Ticonderoga,
Keeps their glory fresh as ever,11
but neither in tradition nor inscription was there anything to his memory. It was a wild and stormy evening in October on which we explored the scene. The intelligent keeper of the village inn gave me the point of a rusty bayonet, dug out from the hill-side, which I brought home and placed on the monument of Colonel Townsend, where it may still be seen, in Westminster Abbey. The Congregationalist minister called on me-Thomas Jones, son of Henry A. Jones, merchant in Bangor-and, also introduced by him, a younger and rougher type, Elijah Jones, a Baptist minister.
With these scanty reminiscences we left Ticonderoga, and reached Saratoga at midnight. Before retiring to rest, I was turning over the pages of Lossing's Revolutionary War,' when in the description of the burial of Jane Macrea at Fort Edward, my eye fell on these words: Her grave is near an old brown head-stone on which are inscribed the words-" Here lyes the body of Duncan Campbell of Inversaw (sic) Esq., Major to the old Highland regiment, aged 55 years, who died the 17th July, 1758, of the wounds he received in the attack of the entrenchments of Ticonderoga or Carillon, 8th July, 1758." Here was the very grave we were in search of, recording the additional fact that he survived his mortal wound for nine days. The first impulse was to return to the spot. But we were already at Saratoga; Fort Edward was far in our rear, and we were due at Concord the following night. We were forced to abandon the actual visit; but that day I wrote to Bishop Williams, stating that we had found the grave, and asking whether any particulars could be procured of the reason or manner of his burial. In a few days, through him, I received the following reply from the Episcopalian clergyman residing on the spot. It is inserted at full length, as it is thought that it may interest other Campbells besides the chief of Inverawe, including the great head of the Argyle tribe.
Duncan Campbell was buried in the old cemetery, at Fort Edward, to which Jane Macrea's body was removed from a graveyard down the
10 Mrs. Grant's Memoirs of an American Lady, p. 206.
"A Highland marching song by Alexander Nicholson (Sheriff-substitute of Wigtonshire).
No. 610 (No. CXXX. N. S.
river. Jane Macrea's remains were again removed, this time to Kingsbury, and finally to the modern cemetery lying between Fort Edward and Sandy Hill. A few years ago a family of Gilchrists of this place, in removing their dead from the old to the new graveyard, carried Duncan Campbell's remains with them, claiming him as a relation.
The claim can be traced now to a tradition only that he was of their family, and to the fact that their ancestor, Alexander Gilchrist, one of the original Scotch settlers in this vicinity, asked, when dying, to be laid by the side of Duncan Campbell, my nearest relative in America,' he said.
The old brown head-stone, in a good state of preservation, is now in the enclosure of the Gilchrists at the new cemetery. [The inscription is here given as above.]
Near by, in the same enclosure, and brought from the same old graveyard as was the former head-stone, are two small marble slabs, to the memory of two of the name of Campbell. On the one is written :
In memory of Mrs. Ann Campbell, of the Family of Balenabe, and Consort of Mr. Duncan Campbell, Who died Aug. the 10th, 1777, in the 74th year of her age.' On the other we find :--Ann Campbell, daughter of Mr. Archibald and Mrs. Floranee Campbell, who died Aug. 11th, 1777. It is said by the Gilchrists and others, that there were other Campbells buried in the old cemetery, but as their graves were without headstones, all knowledge of their names is lost.
Alexander Gilchrist daily attended Major Campbell at Fort Edward during the weeks he lingered there before his death, and it seems strange that more is not known among the Gilchrists of to-day of him who was so prominent in the land, and so nearly associated with their ancestors.
The old lady, Mrs. Mary Finn, whose grandfather was Archibald Campbell, the first husband of Mrs. McNeil, died in 1856. She is said to have remembered many interesting facts about the Campbells and others of importance in the early days of this country, and was often visited by persons who were gathering information about them. She has left several sons and a daughter, and grandchildren, but none of them knew anything more of the Campbells than the head-stones tell, except the fact of their relationship with Duncan Campbell.
Considerable interest has lately been aroused among these descendants, by one of their number, now travelling in Europe, writing home for all the facts about the descent from Duncan Campbell, and they are a little touched with the quite common mania about some vast inheritance to come from the old country to them. Their relative may only be looking up something to give him a claim at the heraldry office.
According to a history of this country just published, and carefully made up, there was a proclamation by the Governor of New York, in 1735, calling for 'loyal Protestant Highlanders,' to become settlers in this portion of the State, at first called Charlotte,' and now Washington county.' The purpose was to have a band of brave and trusted men to stand as a bulwark against the inroads of the French, from Canada, and the Indians. In response to this call Captain Laughlin Campbell, in 1737, came to America and bargained with the acting governor of New York for a grant of thirty thousand acres of land in the proposed section. Campbell then returned to Scotland, sold his property there, gathered a company of four hundred and twenty adults, besides children, and started for his new lands with a portion of his colony accompanying him. On his arrival and presenting himself for his grant, the Governor demanded fees, and a share in the lands. This
Campbell resisted. The assembly was called to his aid, but no relief was afforded him, and he and his company scattered to different places. The disappointed leader finally died in poverty.
In 1763, after the French war, in which the Scotch settlers had performed brave service, Donald, George, and James Campbell, sons of Captain Laughlin Campbell, petitioned the Governor for a grant of land, to the extent of one hundred thousand acres, in the place where their father expected to settle. Their large demand seemed to be made in recognition of their services, and perhaps as a provision for all the disappointed colonists and their descendants who followed their father.
The full amount of their request was not granted them, but they were given for themselves, the three brothers, and their three sisters, and four other persons, who were also called Campbell, ten thousand acres in the place now called Argyle.
Learning of the success of the children of Captain Campbell, descendants of the colonists he brought with him, and a few of the original adventurers, some of them living at the time in New Jersey, made application for a grant of land, in recognition of their services and early claims, and were allowed forty-seven thousand four hundred and fifty acres, in the same neighbourhood with the grant to the children of Captain Campbell, and with it forming the first town of Argyle. This grant was made out in conformity to the advice of the Council, by State authorities, to whom the necessary authority had been delegated, and not by a special act of the King, as many have supposed. The instrument was dated May 21, 1764, and in it the name of Argyle was given to the town, and offices were named. It is the common understanding that the name was given in honour of the 'Duke of Argyle.'
There is a list of names of the grantees, who were not of the immediate family of Laughlin Campbell, and in it occurs the following:-Mary, Elizabeth, Archibald, Duncan, Alexander, Elizabeth, Malcolm, Duncan, George, James, Duncan, junr., and John Campbell.
I now propose to resume the original story with the additional information which I have received since my return. I have frequently mentioned the tale, and I propose (without dwelling on the process by which I arrived at these details) to give them in the order in which they attached themselves to the narrative.12
I have first to relate the murder of Donald Campbell. It was apparently not in leaving, but in approaching Inverawe that the event occurred. It was at Barcaldine. Barcaldine Castle stands nearer to the shore of Loch Crieran, and is now, and has for a long time been a ruin. Barcaldine House was in great part in existence at the time of the story. It stands in the wild country enclosed
12 My kind friends Sir Edward and Lady Colebrooke put me into communication with Mr. Lillie, the friend of Mr. Campbell of Inverawe, who pointed out to me the story, as told with many embellishments, in the Tales of the Highlands, by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder. Mr. Campbell is since dead, but Mrs. Cameron, his sister-in-law, still possesses Barcaldine House, and from the obliging hospitality of herself and her son I obtained on the spot most of the information which appears. Mr. Campbell of Inverawe before his death had already written a letter which I insert hereafter. Inverawe itself (Old Inverawe' to distinguish it from New Inverawe,' a modern house built at some distance on Loch Awe) is now the possession of Mrs. Campbell of Monzie, who, with her daughter, kindly received' us.