Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Glenn D. Considine & Peter H. Kulik, 10th Ed, 2008: Scientific

Portada
Wiley-Interscience, Aug 18, 2008 - 6194 páginas
0 Opiniones

 

The editors are pleased to introduce Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia,

Tenth Edition, thus building upon the long tradition of excellence that

dates back some seventy years to the First Edition, published in 1938 as

a single volume over 1,200 pages and updated over the decades in one

volume (1947, 1958, 1968, 1976, 1983), and then in two volumes (1989,

1995, 2002). This Tenth Edition, in response to exponential growth, both

in scientific knowledge and in the electronic availability of that knowledge,

has grown perforce to three volumes over 6,100 pages.

The essence of VNSE is enduring, and it remains a fine, concise,

comprehensive, and accessible general science work. Its intellectual scope

ranges from the introductory to the highly technical in a vast and

ever-expanding array of topical coverage in the sciences, engineering,

mathematics, medicine, and more. As has long been the case, the

editors have designed the book to be approachable by students of many

ages. An important feature continued in this work, therefore, is the

progressive development of the discussion of each topic, beginning with

a simple definition expressed in plain terms, developing into a more

detailed treatment, and augmented by often-extensive Additional Reading

suggestions.

Contemporary readers can continue to turn to VNSE for information

about how their daily lives are increasingly affected by the sophistication

of today’s science and the complexity of modern technology. They will

be reminded that knowledge and discovery exist in a continuum, and that

often, but not always, what is new depends entirely on what came before.

As our esteemed, late editor of more than 30 years, Douglas M. Considine,

was wont to say, “Science is history”. With that mantra in mind, and noting

that it has already been six years since the Ninth Edition in 2002, it is time

to examine this new edition.

The five major changes noted in the Preface to the Ninth Edition are

still very much a part of the book and are likely to remain so. First,

the way that the editors wrote, gathered and assembled articles for this

book is almost entirely electronic—from query letters to individuals

or to academic, industrial or technical societies or entities; to primary

research for new entries and updates for mature ones, now conducted

almost entirely on the Internet; to communication between editor and

publisher and the transmission of text between them in the partnership

that results in the book itself. Second, the mushrooming Age of Discovery

is still very much with us and is reflected in updates to articles and

families of articles, with special emphasis on the many life sciences, space

science, and computer technology, and much, much more, necessitating

the expansion to a third volume. Third, the use of Internet references as

Additional Reading suggestions, a groundbreaking feature of the Ninth

edition, has been retained and expanded; even print articles are often

archived electronically by magazines and journals and thus the quest for

additional material is increasingly electronic in nature, with readers having

the advantage of much of the culling of thousands of “hits” on a given

topic having been done for them by the editors. Fourth, the editors have

inculcated the previously new feature of Time Lines and Glossaries, to add

at-a-glance information and historical perspective, into a staple of the book;

new coverage includes virology, physiology, pharmaceuticals, the Internet,

weather technology, and more. And fifth, the sense of history is further

developed by expansion of another once-new feature, brief biographies

of many influential scientists including many Nobel Prize winners in

Medicine, Chemistry, and Physics; a history of their times is not complete

without mention of their works. Science is history.

A statistical summary of the Tenth Edition would include more than

10,000 entries and 9,500 cross-references; 4,800 diagrams, graphs, and

photographs; more than 600 tables; and an alphabetical Index of more than

100 printed pages that finds few rivals in the realm of technical literature.

These are large increases, staggering particularly in the number of entries,

and they are the result of an exhaustive, ongoing selection process for

content perhaps best described so presciently by Douglas Considine in

the Preface to the Sixth Edition in 1983: “Obviously, an encyclopedia of

this type cannot serve the same purpose as a news medium. Science, too,

has its own noise level. This is particularly evident from the hundreds of

prematurely announced and exaggerated claims one frequently finds in the

general communications media. Consequently, the authors and editors of

this encyclopedia must carefully sift through the vast scientific data bank

and sort out the trivia from real progress... there is no room for rumor and

the untried and very little room indeed for the controversial in a permanent

scientific reference such as this.” To which the present editors say, Amen.

But even the strictest selection criteria, applied to the gargantuan growth of

knowledge, lead inevitably to the paradox that in print, what is new today

will be, if not obsolete, at least in need of immediate updating tomorrow.

To that end the editors have included thousands of Internet references to

foster contemporaneity in research and Additional Reading. And further to

that end, the editors have a wonderful announcement.

Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia, Tenth Edition, is now available

on the Internet through the Wiley Interscience website. The online version

uses embedded Internet references as hyperlinks both within the book itself

and without—to the greater online community and also to other titles

owned by John Wiley and Sons. At the click of a mouse the student

or reader can now navigate VNSE instantly; this reflects how modern

students actually pursue knowledge, and their parents are not far behind.

The possibilities for ready acquisition of topical knowledge in, simply put,

what is known, thus grow logarithmically through the interconnectedness

of the VNSE and its links to the cyberworld. The editors feel strongly that,

while there will always be an important place for printed literature of all

kinds, as evidenced by the beautiful volumes at hand, the realm of scientific

knowledge, compelled by the ongoing effects of that knowledge itself as

expressed through information technology, will be accessed increasingly

via electronic means.

In closing, one trusts that the reader will indulge a personal observation.

In 1976 at the age of 61, Douglas M. Considine wrote and edited the Fifth

Edition of VNSE. In 2008 at a similar age, his son Glenn D. Considine,

also a writer and editor, presents the Tenth Edition of VNSE. Science is

history. Family is history, too. Thus, this book is dedicated with abiding

affection and gratitude to Douglas M. Considine.

GLENN D. CONSIDINE, Editor

PETER H. KULIK, Associate Editor

 

Comentarios de la gente - Escribir un comentario

Van Nostrand's scientific encyclopedia

Crítica de los usuarios  - Not Available - Book Verdict

Science reference works in print are doomed to obsolescence if not periodically updated. Those striving to cover the waterfront must expand their scope as scientists venture into new areas of study ... Leer comentario completo

Otras ediciones - Ver todas

Acerca del autor (2008)

 

Specialists in all disciplines of the scientific community have contributed in many ways to the preparation of this Tenth Edition of the Van Nostrand’s

Scientific Encyclopedia. Their inputs ranged from the preparation of manuscripts on complex topics, the submittal of new data for the first time, advice

and counsel to the Editorial Board, the seeking out of obscure and discrete information, and the reporting of research findings. Inputs represent those of

scientists, engineers, technologists, located worldwide. In addition to numerous academic institutions and private industries, the editors are much indebted

to numerous governmental departments, agencies, and field organizations for their cooperation. It has always been in the best tradition of the history of

science to share knowledge. It is therefore no mere coincidence that so many contributors are teachers at the university level, for they not only have deep

knowledge in their respective fields, but they also can communicate that knowledge effectively. The great improvements to the substance of this book

would not have been possible without them, and the editors have preserved the individual styles of the authors in keeping with the tradition of VNSE as

an eminently personal, and, one hopes, more accessible work of general science. The editors and staff of this encyclopedia gratefully acknowledge their

excellent cooperation and stress that the following abridged list of over 650 individuals and groups could be much longer.

Special appreciation must be extended for the efforts of Michael Ladisch of Purdue University, for his home article on Bioprocess Engineering

(Biotechnology).—David Leake of Indiana University, both for his home article on Artificial Intelligence, and for quarterbacking the entire family

of twelve AI “sidebar” articles.—The American Meteorological Society for their gracious permission to use numerous articles from the glossary

of meteorology.—Ramon A. Mata-Toledo, James Madison University, who reviewed the Computer Sciences and authored several articles.—Joseph

Castellano, President and CEO of Stanford Resources, who prepared numerous entries on Flat Panel Display Technology.—Dr. Thomas J. Harrison,

who prepared numerous articles on computers and digital technology.—Dr. Steven N. Shore, who authored and arranged several entries dealing with

astronomy and related sciences.—Dr. Ann C. DeBaldo, University of South Florida, who prepared numerous entries in the areas of immunology,

oncology, and infectious diseases.—Drs. M. L. and W. L. Dilling, who skillfully summarized the complex world of organic chemistry, its nomenclature

and equations.—Richard Q. Hofacker Jr., who authored articles on microelectronics and telephony and who rendered invaluable assistance toward

creating comprehensive, yet concise, inputs concerning the broad field of telecommunications.—Peter E. Kraght, who not only authored several articles,

but who also prepared the foundation for other descriptions in the spheres of meteorology and climatology.—Elmer Rowley, who made the coverage of

mineralogy and crystallography in this encyclopedia truly outstanding.—VisionRx, Elmsford, NY., for the numerous entries on Vision and eye related

disorders.—Jeanne Maree Iacono, who authored and rendered invaluable assistance toward creating brief biographies on scores of scientists. Without

exaggeration, the list of such very special efforts could be extended by several additional paragraphs.

NOTE: In the cases of relatively short articles, the authors’ initials may be used instead of their full names. In the following list, an asterisk indicates

such authors. For example: *American Meteorological Society (AMS).

R. C. Aalberse, Central Laboratory of the Blood Transfusion Service of

the Netherlands Red Cross, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. http://stinet.

dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0

727999

Bernard W. Agranoff, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. http://

www.biochem.med.umich.edu/biochem/research/profiles/agranoff.html

Mark Adams, Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

http://www.emersonprocess.com/fisher/

O. J. Adlhart, Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, NJ. www.engelhard.com

H. J. Albert, Parr Instrument Company, Moline, IL. http://www.parrinst.

com/

P. S. Albright, Wichita, KS.

W. Randall Albury, University of New England, Armidale, New South

Wales, Australia. http://www.une.edu.au/

R. A. Alfano, City University of New York (CUNY), New York City, NY.

http://portal.cuny.edu/portal/site/cuny/index.jsp?front door=true

Ulf Alkner, AstraZeneca R&D, Lund, Sweden. http://www.astrazeneca.

com/

K. G. Alle, Imperial College, London, UK. http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/

D. Allen, NCR Corporation, Fort Collins, CO.

David E. Allen, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,

UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

American Forests, Washington, DC . http://www.americanforests.org/

American Gas Association (The), Washington, DC. http://www.aga.org

*American Meteorological Society, (AMS), Boston, MA. http://www.

ametsoc.org/; and http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse?

s=A&p=1

Ames Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Moffett Field, CA. http://www.arc.nasa.gov/

M. J. Aminoff, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Edward S. Amis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.

R. C. Anderson, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. http://www.jpl.

nasa.gov/index.cfm

Lorella Angelini, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD,

BeppoSAX (Satellite). http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

F. Arnold, Kollmorgen Corporation, Northampton, MA. http://www.eo.

kollmorgen.com/

H. R. Arum, Designatronics, Inc., New Hyde Park, NY. http://www.designatronics.

com/

P. Auvray, Levallois-Perret-Cedex, France.

J. Bakos, J. H. Fletcher & Company, Huntington, WV. http://www.jhfletcher.

com/

M. S. Baldwin, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, PA.

D. Bane, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, CA. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm

Gary A. Bannon, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO.

Gregor Barclay, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and

Tobago. http://sta.uwi.edu/

R. Q. Barr, Climax Molybdenum Company, (A subsidiary of the Phelps

Dodge Corporation), Phoenix, AZ. http://www.climaxmolybdenum.com/

Alan D. T. Barrett, University of Texas, Galveston, TX.

Alan J. Barrett, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge, UK.

http://www.babraham.ac.uk/

W. T. Barrett, Foote Mineral Company, Exton, PA.

Derrick Baxby, University of Liverpool, UK.

Trudy E. Bell, Science@NASA. http://science.nasa.gov/

James Bellows, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Cranberry Township,

Butler County, PA. http://www.westinghouse.com/home.html

E. Bendel, McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Long Beach, CA.

Richard E. Benedick, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL),

Richland, WA. http://www.pnl.gov/

R. J. Benke, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA. http://

www.westinghouse.com/

W. O. Bennett, American Time Products, Woodside, NY.

Michael J. Benton, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Jeremy Berg, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, Bethesda,

MD. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/

Kathleen L. Berkner, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

http://www.clevelandclinic.org/

M. S. Bernath, Gould, Inc., Andover, MA.

Ravi Bhagavathula, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS.

Deepak Bhatnagar, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), New

Orleans, LA.

Neil W. Blackstone, Northern Illinois University, De Kalb, IL.

vii

viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

J. Blackwell, Department of Macromolecular Science, Case Western

Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

J. A. Blaeser, Gould, Inc., Andover, MA.

Suzanne Board, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Robert E. Bodenheimer, Jr., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta,

GA.

Giles Boland, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. http://hms.harvard.

edu/hms/home.asp

Katherine R. Bonson, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD.

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/

Fred L. Bookstein, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

BorgWarner Chemicals, Engineering Staff, Washington, WV.

G. Bouissi`eres, University of Paris, Orsay, France.

R. S. Boulton, Ministry of Works, Wellington, New Zealand.

C. O. Bounds, St. Joe Minerals Corporation, Monaca, PA.

R. G. Bowen, Consulting Geologist, Portland, OR.

Peter J. Bowler, Queen’s University of Belfast, Belfast, Ireland, UK.

Patricia T. Boyd, Ph.D., U. Maryland Baltimore County, and NASA’s

Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

J. Boyle, Giddings & Lewis Electronics Company, Fond Du Lac, WI.

J. M. Breen, Adaptive Intelligence Corporation, Milpitas, CA.

Emera Bridger, SUNNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY.

E. H. Bristol, The Foxboro Company, Foxboro, MA. http://www.foxboro.

com/us/eng/Homepage

W. H. Brock, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Aaron L. Brody, Packaging/Brody, Inc., Duluth, GA.

Cecelia M. Brown, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

Joh H. Brown, Fort Worth, TX.

P. M. Brown, Foote Mineral Company, Exton, PA.

Janet Browne, Wellcome Institute for the History ofMedicine, London, UK.

http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

N. W. Browne, Davy McKee (Oil & Chemicals) Ltd., London, UK.

Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Nils Br¨unner, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

http://www.ku.dk/english/

R. Brunner, Semiconductor Products Sector, Motorola Inc., Phoenix, AZ,

Bureau International de l’Heure, Paris, France

Bruce G. Buchanan, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Robert Bud, Science Museum, London, UK. http://www.sciencemuseum.

org.uk/

Alan Buis, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA. http://www.

jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm

B. M. Burns, Coal Technology Association, Gaithersburg, MA. http://www.

coaltechnologies.com/

L. H. Busker, Beloit Corporation, Beloit, WI.

W. F. Bynum, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL,

London, UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Ross N. P. Cahill, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

E. R. Caianiello, Instituto di Fisica Teorica, Universit`A di Napoli, Naples,

Italy

Joe Cain, University College London, London, UK.

Charles H. Calisher, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, Alberta,

Canada. http://www.capp.ca/

Stefano Canali, University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Donald Canton, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

J. Caraceni, International Fuel Cells, Inc., South Windsor, CT.

S. C. Carapella, Jr., ASARCO LLC, Tucson, AZ. http://www.asarco.com/

J. J. Carpenter, American Time Products, Woodside, NY.

Kenneth Carpenter, Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver, CO.

http://www.dmns.org/main/en/

K. J. Carpenter, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Ann Koh Carolyn, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. http://www.

mines.edu/index js.shtml

M. S. Carrigy, Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority,

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. www.asra.gov.ab.ca/strategic/energy.htm

R. T. Carson, Eaton Corporation, Milwaukee, WI.

Arturo Casadevall, Albert-Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY.

http://www.aecom.yu.edu/home/

Joseph Castellano, Stanford Resources, Inc., San Jose, CA.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA.

http://www.cdc.gov/health/diseases.htm

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Solar Energy Laboratory,

Font Romeau, France. http://www.cnrs.fr/index.html

C. G. Chaggaris, ORS Automation, Inc., Princeton, NJ. http://namchitech.

com/portfolio/ORS/

Perng-Kuang Chang, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA),

New Orleans, LA.

Francis F. Chen, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

Vinton G. Cherf, Internet Architecture and Technology, at MCI World-

Com.

R. H. Cherry, Consultant, Huntington Valley, PA.

Boris Chertok, ENERGIA Space Association, Russian Federation. http://

www.energia.ru/english/

Thomas M. Chiang, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN.

A. Chiavello, Satellite Communications, Denver, CO. http://www.spacecolorado.

org/index.html

W. Chow, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA. http://www.

epri.com/

Neil D. Christensen, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA.

Henrik I. Christensen, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

http://www.kth.se/?l=en

Dennon Clardy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

http://discovery.nasa.gov/

David D. Clark, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Cambridge, MA.

http://www.csail.mit.edu/index.php

David L. Clark, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of

Wisconsin, Madison, WI. http://www.geology.wisc.edu/home.html

Euan N. K. Clarkson, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

J. Cobb, Cognex Corporation, Needham, MA. http://www.cognex.com/

Noel G. Coley, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.

Desmond H. Collins, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

http://www.rom.on.ca/index.php

R. L. Colona, General Scanning Inc., Watertown, MA.

David P. Commander, Water and Rivers Commission, Perth, Australia.

http://www.wrc.wa.gov.au/waterinf/index.html

R. K. Conolly, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC. http://apiec.

api.org/frontpage.cfm

P. J. Constantino, Jervis B. Webb Company, Farmington Hills, MI.

http://www.jervisbwebb.com/jbw/jerviswebbhomepage def.htm

Aldo Conti, Frascati(RM), Italy.

Jimmy G. Converse, Sterling Chemicals Inc., Texas City, TX.

C. Sharp Cook, University of Texas, El Paso, TX.

P. H. Cook, The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX.

T. E. Cook, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH. http://www.

pg.com/main.jhtml

A. B. Coon, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

George R. Cooper, School of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University,

West Lafayette, IN. https://engineering.purdue.edu/ECE/

Giberto Corbellni, University ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy.

Katrina Cornish, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA),

Washington, D.C. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome

D. A. Corrigan, Handy & Harman, Fairfield, CT.

A. T. Coscia, American Cyanamid Company, Stamford, CT.

Keith A. Crandall, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

David L. Crawford, Ph.D., International Dark-Sky Association, (Emeritus

Astronomer at National Optical Astronomy Observatories/Kitt Peak

National Observatory), Tuscon, AZ, Light Pollution. http://www.darksky.

org/

J. H. Cronin, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, PA

A. B. Crossman, Brown & Root, Inc., Houston, TX.

J. M. Cruse, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

F. A. Cucinotta, NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html

W. J. Culhane, Mead Corporation, Chillicothe, OH. http://www. meadwestvaco.

com/

V. Cullen, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA.

http://www.whoi.edu/

Emma J. A. Cunningham, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Robert A. Daene, Beloit Corporation, Beloit, WI.

Eli Dahi, Environmental Development Corporation, Søborg, Denmark.

R. M. Dahlgren, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH.

http://www.pg.com/en US/index.jhtml

E. E. David, Jr., Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale,

NJ.

R. Davis, NCR Corporation, Fort Collins, CO.

R. Dean, GA Technologies, Inc. San Diego, CA.

Ann. C. DeBaldo, Ph.D., College of Public Health, University of South

Florida, Tampa, FL. http://health.usf.edu/publichealth/homepage.html

D. F. DeCraene, Chemetals Corporation, Baltimore, MD.

Alexander F. Dedus, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Russian Federation.

W. E. Degenhard, Carl Zeiss, Inc., New York, NY. http://www.zeiss.de/us/

micro/home.nsf

Steven R. Deitcher, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.

http://www.clevelandclinic.org/

Francesca Dellacasa, Univers`ıt`a di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Ramon L´opez de M´antaras, Artificial Intelligence Research Institute,

Spanish Council for Scientific Research. http://www.iiia.csic.es/lang-en/

W. F. Dennen, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

S. E. Desai, Davy McKee Iron & Steel, Stockton-on-Tees, UK.

Marie desJardins, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering

Department, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. http://www.

umbc.edu/engineering/csee/faculty/desjardins.html

D. L. Dexter, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Ivan Diamond, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

J. F. Dicello, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore,

MD.

B. Dickie, Ministry of Mines and Minerals, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

J. Dietl, Wacker Chemie, GMBH, Munich, Germany. http://www.chemie.

de/firmen/e/2279/wacker chemie ag.html

E. D. Dietz, Consultant, Toledo, OH.

W. Dietz, Wacker Chemie, GMBH, Munich, Germany.

M. L., and W. L. Dilling, The Dow Chemical Company Midland, MI.

Adrian K. Dixon, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Z. C. Dobrowolski, Kinney Vacuum Company, Canton, MA. http://vacuum.

tuthill.com/; and http://vacuum.tuthill.com/About/about history kinney.

asp

V. J. Dobson, Dynapath System Inc., Livonia, MI. http://www.dynapath.

com/

Stephen K. Donovan, The Natural History Museum, London, UK.

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/

F. Dostal, American Time Products, Woodside, NY.

Jim Douglas, Dammeron Valley, UT.

R. G. Douglas, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook,

NY.

E. A. Draeger, McNally Pittsburg Mfg. Corp., Pittsburg, PA.

H. Dressler, Koppers Company, Inc., Monroeville, PA. http://www.koppers.

com/about.htm

Keith Dreyer, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

R. M. Durham, Infrared Industries, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA. www.electrooptical.

com

Gareth J. Dyke, University College Dublin, Belfield, Ireland.

C. J. Easton, Sensotec, Inc., Columbus, OH. http://www.sensotec.com/

index.html

Kenneth C. Ehrlich, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA),

New Orleans, LA.

Jan-Olof Eklundh, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

http://www.kth.se/?l=en

Gabriel Elkaim, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

R. A. Elliott, Qualiplus USA, Inc., Stamford, CT.

Stanley B. Elliott, Bedford, OH.

Mohgah Elsheikh, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK. http://www.oxfordradcliffe.

nhs.uk/home.aspx

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix

Theodore A. Endrenny, SUNNY-ESF, Syracuse, NY.

Eurotunnel Exhibition Centre, Victoria Plaza, 111 Buckingham Palace

Road, London SW1W OST, UK.

Eurotunnel Information Centre, St. Martin’s Plain, Cheriton High Street,

Folkstone, Kent CT19 4QD, UK. http://ww1.eurotunnel.com/rcs/etun/pb

english/en wp corp/index.jsp

B. Evans, Rare-earth Information Center, Institute for Physical Research

and Technology. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. http://www.external.

ameslab.gov/RIC/index.html.

Maxime A. Faget, NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html

Christopher G. Fairburn, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

J. J. Faran, Jr., (retired), Lincoln, MA.

Daniel F. Farkas (retired), Oregon State University, Eugene, OR.

Gene Carl Feldman, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Dale Fenn, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Dulles, VA. http://www.orbital.

com/

H. Fenninger, Wacher Chemie, GMBHMunich, Germany. http://www.chemie.

de/firmen/e/2279/wacker chemie ag.html

L. Fieser, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

M. Fieser, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

J. File, Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

http://www.pppl.gov/

T. Flack, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Madison Heights, MI.

R. Fletcher, J. H Fletcher & Company. Huntington, WV. http://www.jhfletcher.

com/

P. A. Flinn, GMF Robotics Corporation, Troy, MI.

Kevin Flurkey, Ph.D., The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME.

http://www.jax.org

Charles T. Force, Tracy’s Landing, MD.

Donald R. Forsdyke, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Jennifer M. Fostel, Pharmacia Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI.

Susan Eileen Fox, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN.

Thomas Leth Frandsen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen,

Denmark. http://www.ku.dk/english/

Christian D. Frazar, Silver Spring, MD.

John C. Freeman, Certified Consulting Meteorologist, Weather Research

Center, TX. http://www.wxresearch.com/

Bettina C. Fries, Albert-Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY.

http://www.aecom.yu.edu/home/

Watson Fuller, Keele University, Keele, UK.

K. Galle, Imperial College, London, UK.

U. L. Gantenbein, Institute for History of Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland.

http://www.dur.ac.uk/chmd/sauerteig/sexedu/

Jonathan P. Gardner, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

(NASA).

J. A. Garman, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, West Lafayette, IN.

Gas Research Institute, DesPlaines, IL. http://www.gri.org/

Stephen M. Gatesy, Brown University, Providence, RI.

R. E. Gebelein, Moore Products Company, Spring House, PA.

Walter Geller, UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg,

Germany. http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=11385

F. B. Gerhard, Jr., GTE Laboratories Incorporated, Waltham, MA.

Sigmar German, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig,

Germany. http://www.ptb.de/index en.html

H. P. Gerrish, National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, FL. http://www.

nhc.noaa.gov/

I. Gilmour, Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, MA.

K. F. Glasser, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., New York,

NY. http://www.coned.com/

Beverley J. Glover, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Columbia University, New York,

NY. http://www.giss.nasa.gov/

J. Golden, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder,

CO. http://www.noaa.gov/

D. T. Goldman, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC. http://

www.100.nist.gov/

x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

James E. Goldman, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

David S. Goldstein, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

www.nih.gov/

Teresa Gomez, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html

Avelino, J. Gonzalez, University of Central Florida, Department of Electrical

Engineering and Computer Science, Orlando, FL. http://www.eecs.

ucf.edu/

Louis H. Goodson, Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO.

http://www.mriresearch.org/

Michael D. Gottfried, Michigan State University Museum, East Lansing,

MI.

Cristoph Gradmann, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Gregory Gregoriadis, University of London, London, UK.

Rita Grob-Hardt, Center of Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), T¨ubingen,

Germany. http://www.zmbp.uni-tuebingen.de/

Mario A. Di Gregori, University of L’Aguila, Italy.

D. L. Gregory, Boeing Aerospace Company, Seattle, WA. http://www.boeing.

com/flash.html

E. A. Groh, Geologist, Portland, OR.

L. Groszek, Technical Center, Ford Motor Company Dearborn, MI.

K. A. Gschneidner, Jr., Rare-earth Information Center, Institute for

Physical Research and Technology. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

http://www.external.ameslab.gov/RIC/index.html

David A. Gustafson, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

Colleen Hadigan, Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA.

G. A. Hall, Jr., Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.

R. C. Hamilton, (retired), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

R. J. Hamilton, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

William J. Hankley, Department of Computing and Information Science,

Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. http://www.cis.ksu.edu/

P. S. Hansen, The Foxboro Company, Invensys Process Systems, Foxboro,

MA. http://www.foxboro.com/

P. S. Hansen, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

A. O. Hanson, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Navraj S. Hanspal, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Ulla-Britt Hansson, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

V. A. Harden, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. http://www.nih.

gov/

Anne Hardy, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, UK.

http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

P. W. Harland, Ametek, Inc., Paoli, PA. http://www.ametek.com/

∗Thomas J. Harrison, (T.J.H) (retired), IBM Corporation, Boca Raton,

FL.

Thomas Harter, University of California, Davis, CA.

Martin Harwitt, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

W. Havemann, Carl Zeiss, Inc., New York, NY. http://www.zeiss.de/us/

micro/home.nsf

John B. Hay, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Michael J. Hayes, National Drought Mitigation Center, University of

Nebraska, Lincoln, NE. http://www.drought.unl.edu/

B. W. Heinemeyer, The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX.

L. L. Hench, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

William R. Hendee, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

http://www.mcw.edu/display/router.asp?DocID=1

Meenhard Herlyn, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA. http://www.wistar.

org/

Claire E. J. Herrick, Rockefeller University, London, UK.

E. W. Hewson, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

S. P. Higgins, Jr., Honeywell, Inc., Phoenix, AZ. www.honeywell.com/

Katherine A. High, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia,

PA. http://www.chop.edu/consumer/index.jsp

D. Hines, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM.

http://www.nmt.edu/

Joel H. Hildebrand, University of California Berkeley, CA.

Geoffrey Hinton, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto,

Toronto, Canada. http://web.cs.toronto.edu/dcs/

Rebecca Hitchin, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

S. E. Hluchan, Pfizer, Inc., Wallingford, CT. http://www.pfizer.com/

main.html

Donald R. Hodge, The BDM Corporation, Vienna, VA.

Jessica K. Hodgins, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

D. M. Hoelzl, GTE Laboratories, Incorporated, Waltham, MA.

Richard Q. Hofacker, Jr., (retired), Bell Laboratories, Short Hills, NJ,

Satellites (Communications and Navigation); Telephony (Telecommunications).

Josephine Hoh, Rockefeller University, New York, NY. http://www.rockefeller.

edu/

Michael T. Holbrook, Dow Chemical, U.S.A.

Joseph Holden, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Norman E. Holden, National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National

Laboratory, Upton, NY. http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/

Stephen T. Holgate, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Arthur Hollman, Pett, East Sussex, UK.

Gordon Holman, Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA/

Goddard Space Center, Greenbelt, MD. http://astrophysics.gsfc.nasa.gov/

astroparticles/

Arthur M. Holst, Philadelphia Water Department, Philadelphia, PA.

http://www.phila.gov/water/

Claus Holst-Hansen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

http://www.ku.dk/english/

K. Honchell, Cincinnati Milacron, Lebanon, OH. http://www.milacron.

com/

J. C. Hoogendorn, South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd., Sasolburg,

Republic of South Africa.

L. Hoover, American Geological Institute (AGI), Washington, DC. http://

www.agiweb.org/

H. S. Hopkins, (retired), Olin Corporation, Norwalk, CT. http://www.olin.

com/

Stephen Horan, New Mexico State University, NM.

Tim Horder, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

David W. Howard, Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc. Stoughton,

MA. http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/index.asp

Samuel C. Hsieh, Department of Computer Science, Ball State University,

Muncie, IN. http://www.bsu.edu/cs/

Patrick Hughes, Earth Observatory, NASA, Washington, DC. http://earthobservatory.

nasa.gov/

Martin H¨ulskamp, University of T¨ubingen, T¨ubingen, Baden-W¨urttemberg,

Germany.

G. C. Humphreys, Davy McKee (Oil & Chemicals) Ltd., London, UK.

Christopher J. Humphries, The Natural History Museum, London, UK.

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/index.html

Michael Hunter, Birkbeck University of London, London, UK.

Charles D. Hurd, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

T. N. Hurst, Hewlett-Packard Company, Boise, ID.

John R. Hutchinson, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

∗Jeanne Maree Iacono, (J. M. I.), Dammeron Valley, UT.

R. P. Iacono, M.D., F.A.C.S., Redlands, CA.

J. Ingle, Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL . http://www.caterpillar.com/

Martin Ingrouille, Birkbeck College, University of London, London, UK.

Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL.

John Issitt, University of York, York, UK.

Jyrki Jaakkola, Valmet Corporation, Charlotte, NC.

R. B. Jacques, Black Mesa Pipeline, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ. http://www.blackmesapipeline.

com/

Fred Jansen, Space Science Department, ESA Directorate of Scientific Programmes,

ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. http://eu.spaceref.com/

Michael C. Jarvis, Glasgow University, Glasgow, UK.

A. Jayaraman, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.

W. D. Jensen, GTE Laboratories Incorporated, Waltham, MA.

Jolyon Jesty, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

Graham B. Jones, Northeastern University, Boston, MA.

Ross M. Jones, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA.

Andrew Juhl, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University,

Palisades, NY. http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/

Pierre Y. Julien, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Deborah O. Jung, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.

Robert E. Kahn, Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Reston

VA. http://www.cnri.reston.va.us/

D. Kaiser, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Richmond, CA. http://www.parker.

com/

G. J. Kaminsky, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH.

http://www.pg.com/main.jhtml

M. L. Kapsenberg, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

http://www.onderzoekinformatie.nl/en/oi/nod/organisatie/ORG12-

38482/

J. N. Karlberg, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH.

http://www.pg.com/main.jhtml

Gholam A. Kazemi, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran.

David W. Kelley, University of St. Thomas, Saint Paul, MN.

Sir Maurice Kendall, International Statistical Institute, London, UK.

http://isi.cbs.nl/index.htm

E. W. Kent, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC. http://www.

nist.gov/

Gerhard Kerstiens, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

Daniel J. Kevles, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

http://www.hss.caltech.edu/people/faculty/daniel.kevles@yale.edu

R. W. Keyes, IBM Corporation, Yorktown Heights, NY.

B. P. Kibble, National Physical Laboratory, Middlesex, England. http://

www.npl.co.uk/server.php?show=nav.1

K. E. Kimball, Siemens Capital Corporation, Iselin, NJ.

Wayne G. Kimpton, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

J. P. King, The Foxboro Company, Rahway, NJ.

Thereza L. Kipnis, State University of Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Gerry G. B. Klaus, National Institute for Medical Research, London, UK.

http://www.nimr.mrc.ac.uk/

Daniel L. Klayman, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring,

MD. http://wrair-www.army.mil/

Leonard Kleinrock, Professor of Computer Science, University of California,

Los Angeles, CA. http://www.lk.cs.ucla.edu/

Aaron Klug, Medical Research Council, Cambridge, UK. http://www.mrc.

ac.uk/index.htm

Timothy W. Kneeland, Nazareth College, Rochester, NY.

George S. Kobayashi, Washington University School of Medicine, St.

Louis, MO. http://medschool.wustl.edu/

D. M. Koffman, GTE Laboratories Incorporated, Waltham, MA.

Michael Kohlhase, Department of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon

University, Pittsburgh, PA. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/

George Kontaxakis, Universidad Polit´ecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Jean Kovalevsky, Cerga-Observatoire de la Cˆote d’ Azur, Grasse, France.

Peter E. Kraght, (retired), Consulting Meteorologist, Mabank, TX.

P. A. Kraska, Pattern Processing Technologies, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

T. W. Krauss, Intec Controls Corporation, Foxboro, MA.

G. Kuebler, GLI International, Inc., (formerly Great Lakes Instruments),

Milwaukee, WI. http://www.gliint.com/

I. A. Kunasz, Foote Mineral Company, Exton, PA.

W. Kupper, Mettler Instrument Corporation, Hightstown, NJ.

Alexander N. Kuznetsov, Russian Aviation and Space Agency, Russian

Federation.

Hyuck Kwon, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS.

Michael R. Ladisch, Director, Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering;

http://fairway.ecn.purdue.edu/IIES/LORRE/index and Department

of Agricultural and Biological Engineering; http://abe.www.ecn.

purdue.edu/ABE/Fac Staff/ladisch, Purdue University, West Lafayette,

IN.

Jennifer Lagier, Hartnell College, Salinas, CA.

Oliver Lagueux, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

A. H. Lalas, Chrysler Corporation, Detroit, MI. http://www.chrysler.com/

Joseph B. Lambert, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Thomas K. Landers, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Short Hills, NJ.

M. D. Laubichler, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

G. G. Lauer, (retired), Koppers Company, Inc., Monroeville, PA.

Thomas Laux, Center of Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP), T¨ubingen,

Germany. http://www.zmbp.uni-tuebingen.de/

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi

R. F. Lawrence, (retired), Westinghouse Electric Corporation, East

Pittsburgh, PA.

W. W. Lawrence, Jr., Ethyl Corporation, Baton Rouge, LA.

David B. Leake, Computer Science Department, Indiana University,

Bloomington, IN. http://www.cs.indiana.edu/∼leake/

C. Lebarbier, Electricit´e de France, Paris, France. http://www.edf.com/

20403i/Home-com.html

J. M. Lee, The M. W. Kellogg Company, Houston, TX.

Bernard Le Guenno, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Barry M. Leiner, Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science,

Moffett Field, CA.

Nancy J. Leon, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. http://www.jpl.

nasa.gov/index.cfm

Leona M. Leonard, University College Dublin, Belfast, Ireland.

Leo S. Leonhart, Hargis + Associates, Inc., Tucson, AZ. http://www.hargis.

com/index2.cfm

John S. Lewis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

R. E. Lewis, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

http://www.umc.edu/

Jiayin Li, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, Bethesda, MD.

http://www.nigms.nih.gov/

L. Libby, Simmons Refining Company, Chicago, IL.

Daniel V. Lim, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Zhi-Qing Lin, Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville, Edwardsville,

IL.

B. Lindal, Virkir Consulting Group Ltd., Reykjavik, Iceland.

Rebecca Lindsey, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

N. C. Liston, U. S. Department of Army Cold Regions Research and

Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH.

B. Lohff, Medizinischen Hochschule, Hannover, Germany.

Jamie Love, Science Explained, Cloning (Mammals); and Cloning (The

Story of Dolly the Sheep). www.synapses.co.uk/science/index.html

S. Lovejoy, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec.

B. A. Loyer, Motorola, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Lucent Technologies, Optical Fiber Solutions, Norcross, GA. http://www.

ofsoptics.com/

David C. Lynch, CyberCash Inc., New York, NY.

Steven L. Lytinen, School of Computer Science, Telecommunications, and

Information Systems, DePaul University, Chicago, IL.

John B. Macauley, Ph.D., The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME.

http://www.jax.org

Fred T. Mackenzie, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

Ralph E. Mackiewicz, Sisco, Inc., Sterling Heights, MI. http://www.

sisconet.com/

Michael T. Madigan, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.

E. C. Magison, Consulting Engineer, Ambler, PA.

M. E. Magnello, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,

UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Lois N. Magner, Purdue University, West Lafayette, West Lafayette, IN.

C. L. Mamzic, Siemens Energy & Automation Inc., (formally Moore

Products Company, Spring House, PA. http://www.mooreproducts.com/

Jack Maniloff, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. http://www.urmc.

rochester.edu/gebs/faculty/jack maniloff.htm

Diana E. Manuel, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,

UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Jerry W. Manweiler, Lawrence, KS.

John Marafino, Department of Mathematics, James Madison University,

Harrisonburg, VA. http://www.math.jmu.edu/

Julie R. Mariga, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Hans Mark, Austin, TX.

D. L. Marrin, Hanalei, HI.

Cathie Martin, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK. http://www.jic.ac.uk/

science/cdb/Index.htm

J. R. Masson, Davy McKee (Oil and Chemicals) Ltd., London, UK.

Ramon A. Mata-Toledo, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

Prabhaker Mateti, Wright State University, Dayton, OH.

Brian A. Maurer, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

xii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

H. L. Mayer, Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. http://www.

hydroquebec.com/en/index.html

J. Mazurkiewicz, Pacific Scientific, Rockford, IL. http://www.pacsci.com/

Dennis J. McCance, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Robert W. McCarley, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Maclyn McCarty, Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

Sheila McCormic, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

W. R. McCown, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA.

W. F. McIlhenny, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI.

Ian R. McNab, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.

Terence Meaden, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Lisa Meeden, Associate Professor and Director, Computer Science Program,

Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA. http://www.cs.swarthmore.

edu/

Roger W. Melvold, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.

Robert O. Messing, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Amit Metha, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

R. W. Miller, Consultant, Foxboro, MA.

Andrew R. Milner, Birkbeck College, London, UK.

E. D. Mohr, Unimation (Westinghouse Electric Corporation), Danbury,

CT.

John E. Moore (retired), USGS, Denver, CO.

S. M. Moore, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. http://www.lbl.

gov/

Michel Morange, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France. http://www.

ens.fr/index en.php

Gregory J. Morgan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

J. A. Morgan, North American Electric Reliability Council, Princeton, NJ.

V. I. Moroz, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Kevin Mulrooney, Newark, DE. Index

T. Murphy, IBM Corporation, Yorktown Heights, NY.

J. Nagy, Beckman Industrial Corporation, Cedar Grove, NJ.

NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), Washington DC. http://nai.arc.nasa.

gov/

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. http://www.gsfc.

nasa.gov/

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, CA. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm

National Indoor Environmental Institute, Plymouth Meeting, PA.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/index.htm

National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. http://www.nih.gov/

Robert J. Naumann, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL.

William T. Nearn, Weyerhaeuser Company, Seattle, WA. http://www.

weyerhaeuser.com/

M. M. Nelson, Honeywell Inc., Billerica, MA.

Amiko Nevills, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

L. R. Newitt, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. http://gsc.

nrcan.gc.ca/contact e.php

E. R. Niblett, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Claus Nielsen, Zoologisk Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. http://zoologi.

snm.ku.dk/english/

S. Nojiima, Japan Gasoline Company, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. http://www.

tokyo-gas.co.jp/index e.html

Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture

(USDA), Darby, PA.

John Norvell, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, Bethesda,

MD. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/

Gustav J. V. Nossal, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

V. Nutton, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, UK.

http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. http://www.ornl.gov/

ornlhome/index.htm

James F. O’Brien, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.

H. Oeda, Ojinomoto Co., Inc., Kawaski, Japan.

E. A. Ogryzlo, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British

Columbia, Canada.

Ronald J. Oldfield, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Robert S. Oldham, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.

David Oldroyd, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South

Wales, Australia.

R´egis Olry, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivi`eres, Quebec, Canada.

R. L. Osborne, Honeywell Inc., Billerica, MA.

R. H. Osman, Robicon Corporation, (A Subsidiary of High Voltage Engineering

Corporation), New Kensington, PA. http://www.robicon.com/

Jurg Ott, Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

John S. Oxford, St Bartholomew’s and the Royal London School of

Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK. http://www.smd.qmul.ac.uk/

V. C. Oxley, GTE Laboratories Incorporated, Waltham, MA.

S. T. Oyama, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. http://www.lbl.

gov/

Pacific Gas and Electric Company, (a subsidiary of PG&E Corporation),

San Francisco, CA. http://www.pge.com/

Stefano Pagliara, Univers`ıt`a di Pisa, Pisa, Italy. http://www.unipi.it/

english/index.htm

Panel on Mathematical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences,

Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council, Washington,

DC. http://sites.nationalacademies.org/nrc/index.htm

John Parascandola, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

Rockville, MD. http://www.hhs.gov/

B. S. Park, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. http://www.nih.

gov/

Bradford Parkinson, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Ohad Parnes, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL,

London, UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Ohad S. Parnes, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin,

Germany. http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/en/index.html

Judith Totman Parrish, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

J. M. Pasachoff, Hopkins Observatory, Williams College, Williamstown,

MA. http://www.williams.edu/Astronomy/

Jose O. Payero, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, North Platte, NE.

R. Peacock, LTV Steel Company, Inc. Independence, OH. http://www.

ltvsteel.com/htmfiles/glance.htm

Amanda R. Perry, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, UK.

http://www.icr.ac.uk/

Max Perutz, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

Peter Pesch, Astronomy Department, Case Western Reserve University,

Cleveland, OH. http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/dept/

Alan Petersen, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

L. V. Pfaender, Owens-Illinois, Toledo, OH.

Sir David Phillips, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

A. K. Pierce, Kitt Peak National Observatory (a division of the National

Optical Astronomy Observatories which is operated by the Association

of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under cooperative

agreement with the National Science Foundation, Tucson, AZ.

http://www.noao.edu/kpno/

W. T. Plass, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Northeastern

Forest Experimentation, Princeton, WV. http://www.na.fs.fed.us/

Benjamin R. Pobanz, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Howard W. Post, Williamsville, NY.

D. Postma, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, MI.

H. J. Power, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL,

London, UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

D. B. Priddy, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI.

Nitish Priyadarshi, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

Donald R. Prothero, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA.

Michele L. Pruyn, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

J. H. Purnell, Department of Chemistry, University of Swansea, Swansea,

UK. http://www.swan.ac.uk/

Viviane M. Quirke, The Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, UK.

http://www.rigb.org/registrationControl?action=home

Kanury V. S. Rao, International Center for Genetic Engineering and

Biotechnology, New Delhi, India. http://www.icgeb.trieste.it/RESEARCH/

ND/ndrsprg.htm

P. Krishna Rao, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver

Springs, MD. http://www.noaa.gov/

Jeremy Rasmussen, Sypris Electronics, LLC., Tampa, FL.

Todd Rasmussen, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

M. J. Ratcliff, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,

UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

N. Razo, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO.

http://www.ncar.ucar.edu/ncar/

Philip F. Rehbock, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI.

R. D. Reincke, Caterpillar Inc., Peoria, IL. http://www.caterpillar.com/

R. G. Reip, Consulting Engineer, Sawyer, MI.

Victor I. Reus, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Vladimir V. Riabov, River College, Nashua, NH. http://www.rivier.edu

R. P. Rich, Eastman Chemical Company, Kingsport, TN. http://www.

eastman.com/Markets/Textiles/Textiles intro.asp

E. H. Richardson, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Dominion Astrophysical

Observatory, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. http://www.hia.nrc.

ca/

J. A. Riddick, Baton Rouge, LA.

J. C. Riley, Consulting Engineer, Portland, OR.

G. G. Robert, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Gareth Roberts, FRS, Thorn EMI plc and University of Oxford, Oxford,

UK.

Lawrence G. Roberts, Caspian Networks, San Jose, CA. http://www.

caspian.com/home.asp

Robert L. Roberts, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles,

CA.

T. H. Rogers, (retired), Elastomers Consultant, Clearwater, FL.

Nils Roll-Hansen, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

G. R. Romovacek, Koppers Company, Inc., Monroeville, PA.

B. A. Ross, General Motors Corporation, Indianapolis, IN.

Duane L. Ross, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html

D. M. Ross, Propellants Consultant, Lancaster, CA.

Alex T. Rowland, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.

Elmer B. Rowley, (retired), Union College, Schenectady, NY.

P. F. H. Rudolph, Lurgi Mineralotechnik, GMBH, Frankfurt (Main), West

Germany.

Edward G. Ruestow, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.

Nicolaas A. Rupke, G¨ottingen University, G¨ottingen, Germany

G. A. Russell, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center,

College Station, TX. http://medicine.tamhsc.edu/

L. Russell, MTS Systems Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN. http://www.

mts.com/

Jack J. Rutledge, Professor and Chair Department of Meat and Animal

Science, University ofWisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. http://www.ansci.

wisc.edu/

Kirstie Saltsman, National Institute of GeneralMedical Sciences, Bethesda,

MD. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/

Paul M. Salvaterra, Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA. http://www.

cityofhope.org/bricoh

Sundeep S. Salvi, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Anthony P. Sampson, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Neeraja Sankaran, Yale University, New Haven, CT.

S. J. Sansonetti, Consultant, Reynolds Metals Company (ALCOA), Richmond.

VA. http://www.alcoa.com/

R. P. Santandrea, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.

http://www.lanl.gov/worldview/

E. J. Sare, PPG Industries Inc., Barberton, OH.

W. L. W. Sargent, Royal Greenwich Laboratory, Sussex, UK. http://www.

the-observatory.org/

Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA. http://www.

wistar.org/

Jonathan Schaeffer, Ph.D., Department of Computer Science, University

of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/

D. Schertzer, M´et´eorologie Nationale, Paris, France.

William T. Schiano, Bentley College, Waltham, MA.

C. E. Schildknecht, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.

W. R. Schiller, Wacher Chemie, GMBH, Munich, Germany.

Lukas Schreiber, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii

M. Schussler, Fansteel, North Chicago, IL.

Birgit Schwab, University of T¨ubingen, T¨ubingen, Baden-W¨urttemberg,

Germany.

James H. Schwartz, Columbia University College of Physicians and

Surgeons, New York, NY. http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/dept/ps/

M. Sekino, Toyobo Co., Ltd., Iwakuni, Yamaguch-Pref., Japan.

Raj Sharma, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

W. G. Shequen, (retired), Bausch & Lomb, Sunland, CA. http://www.

bausch.com/

∗Steven N. Shore, (S.N.S), University of Indiana South Bend, South Bend,

IN.

E. C. Shuman, Consulting Engineering, State College, PA.

Siemens Aktiengesselschaft Engineering Staff, Erlangen, Germany.

W. Dias Da Silva, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Rio De

Janeiro, Brazil.

Milton A. Silveira, NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/johnson/home/index.html

Arthur M. Silverstein, John Hopkins University School of Medicine,

Baltimore, MD. http://www.jhu.edu/

L. E. Simmons, Simmons Refining Company, Chicago, IL.

S. Fred Singer, The Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEEP),

Arlington, VA. http://www.sepp.org/

Pratap Singh, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, India. http://www.

nih.ernet.in/

Christopher M. Sinton, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

D. C. Sleeman, Davy McKee (Oil & Chemicals) Ltd., London, UK.

L. F. Small, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Mark D. Smith, Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Phoenix, AZ.

http://ludb.clui.org/ex/i/AZ3132/

David R. Smyth, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Walter E. Sneader, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

http://www.strath.ac.uk/

James S. Sochacki, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

G. A. Somorjai, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. http://www.

lbl.gov/

P. E. Spargo, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.

E. Sperry, Beckman Industrial Corporation, Cedar Grove, NJ.

James Spiker, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

M. A. Stadtherr, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of

Illinois, Urbana, IL. http://www.engr.uiuc.edu/

S. Stamas, Exxon Corporation, New York, NY. http://www.exxon.com/

index flash.html

Susan-Marie Stedman, NMFS F/HC, Silver Spring, MD.

C. Bruce Stephenson, Department of Astronomy, CaseWestern University,

Cleveland, OH. http://burro.astr.cwru.edu/dept/

Peter F. Stevens, Missouri Botanical Gardens, St. Louis, MO. http://www.

mobot.org

J. Stevenson, West Instruments, East Greenwich, RI.

Richard E. Stiehm, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles,

CA.

S. Stoddard, Waugh Controls Corp., Chatsworth, CA.

T. S. Storer, Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA. www.hp.com/

E. Sulzer, Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc., Peabody, MA.

J. C. Summers, Automotive Catalyst Company, Tulsa, OK.

Kenneth S. Suslick, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana,

IL.

Michael A. Sutton, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

H. F. Szepan, (retired), Ingersoll-Rand Co., Impco Division, Nashua, NH.

http://www.ingersoll-rand.com/

Michael Szyscher, PolyMedica Industries, Inc.

E. M. Tansey, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, UK.

http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

Barry L. Tarmy, TBD Technology.

D. G. Terry, (retired), Ingersoll-Rand Co., Impco Division, Nashua, NH.

James Thrall, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan.

Wesley F. Tree, The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH.

W. A. Troeger, Weston (Sangamo-Weston, Inc.), Newark, NJ.

xiv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Joachim Truemper, Ph.D., Professor, Max Planck Institute (MPE),

Germany. http://www.mpe-garching.mpg.de/

Karen Tucker, Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian

Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, X-Ray Astronomy. http://cfawww.

harvard.edu/

Wallace Tucker, Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian

Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, X-Ray Astronomy. http://cfawww.

harvard.edu/

S. Turner, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD. http://www.

nist.gov/

Izrail S. Turovsky, Jacksonville, FL.

David Twell, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Mohsen G. Uizani, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI.

David M. Unwin, Museum f¨ur Naturkundle, Berlin, Germany.

L. F. Urry, Eveready Battery Company, Ltd., Westlake, OH. http://www.

eveready.com/

U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental

Research, Oak Ridge, TN. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/oakridge/index.

html

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, D.C.

http://www.epa.gov/

G. V. Van denBerg, Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B. V.,

The Hague, Netherlands. http://www.shell.com/

O. Vandermarcq, Ambassade de France aux Etats-Unis Services de la

Mission Scientifique, Houston, TX.

E. Van Haaften, American Time Products, Woodside, NY.

J. A. Vegeasis, Shell Development Company, Houston, TX. http://www.

shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=us-en

Manual G. Venegas, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH.

http://www.pg.com/en US/index.jhtml

Paul Verrell, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. http://www.wsu.

edu/∼verrelab/

∗R. C. Vickery, (R.C.V), Blanton/Dade City, FL.

Video Logic Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA.

Roger, Vignelles, Corbeil-Essonnes, France.

R. Villalobos, The Foxboro Company (A Siebe Company), Foxboro, MA.

Ray Villard, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, Hubble

Space Telescope. http://www.stsci.edu/resources/

VisionRx, Inc., Elmsford, NY. http://visionrx.com/

G. T. Volpe, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT.

Robert Volp´e, University of Toronto, Toronto Ontario, Canada

Kyle Wagner, Ph.D., NIH Fellow, University Maryland at Baltimore,

Baltimore, MD., and University of Maryland Institute for Advanced

Computer Studies, College Park, MD. http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/

J. Walker, Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

W. Allan Walker, Children’s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA. http://www.

childrenshospital.org/

John Waller, University of London, London, UK.

K. A. Walsh, Brush Wellman Inc., Elmore, OH. http://www.brushwellman.

com/index.asp

Johannes Walter, Kaiser Franz Josef Spital, Vienna, Austria.

J. D. Warnock, Siemens Energy & Automation Inc., (formally Moore

Products Company), Spring House, PA. http://www.mooreproducts.

com/

Albin H. Warth, Cape May, NJ.

John A. H. Wass, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK. http://www.oxfordradcliffe.

nhs.uk/home.aspx

C. Kenneth Waters, Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science, University

of Minnesota, MN. http://www.mcps.umn.edu/

Katherine D. Watson, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Byron H. Webb, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington,

DC. http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome

Martin C. Weisskopf, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.

http://www.msfc.nasa.gov/

J. Wells, Edison International, parent company of (Southern California

Edison Company), Rosemead, CA. http://www.edisonx.com/

J. Y. Welsh, Chemetals Corporation, Baltimore, MD.

Michael Werner, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA.

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm

L. Werth, Pattern Processing Technologies, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

J. R. Whiteway, Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario.

Darrell Whitley, Department of Computer Science, Colorado State University,

Fort Collins, CO. http://www.cs.colostate.edu/

Richard J. Whitley, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham,

AL.

Robert M. Whittier, Endevco Corporation, San Juan Capistrano, CA.

http://www.endevco.com/

P. R. Wiederhold, General Eastern Instruments Corporation, Watertown,

MA.

Lise Wilkinson, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London,

UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

R. N. Wilkinson, The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH.

http://www.pg.com/en US/index.jhtml

Adrian E.Williams, APEM Ltd., Manchester, UK. http://www.apemltd.co.

uk/aquatics/

David R. Williams, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/

E. Williams, Cobalt Information Centre, London, UK.

R. L. Wilson, Honeywell, Inc., Fort Washington, PA.

E. G. Winchester, Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine,

London, UK. http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/

A. T. Winfree, Professor Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of

Arizona, Tucson, AZ. http://eebweb.arizona.edu/

Christer Wingren, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. http://www.createhealth.

lth.se/research/carl borrebaeck/research groups/christer wingren/

J. A. Witkowski, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor,

NY. http://www.cshl.edu/

Wolfgang W¨oger, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig,

Germany.

Stephen Wolff, Cisco Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA. http://www.cisco.com/

A. S. Wood, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, CA. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/index.cfm

G. R. Woodcock, Boeing Aerospace Company, Seattle, WA. http://www.

boeing.com/flash.html

Michael Worboys, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Brian S. Worthington, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Edward L. (Ned) Wright, Professor of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,

Westwood, CA. http://www.astro.ucla.edu/%7Ewright/intro.html Cosmology.

Mike Wright, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL. http://www.

nasa.gov/centers/marshall/home/index.html

Simcha Lev-Yadun, University of Haifa-Oranim, Tivon, Israel.

Chih Ted Yang, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Michael I. Yarymovych, (retired), Boeing Space and Communications,

Seal Beach, CA.

G. Yazbak, MetriCor, Inc., Monument Beach, MA.

Timothy J. Yeatman, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Alexander V, Zakharow, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian

Federation.

C. K. Zimmerman, E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Wilmington,

DE. http://www.dupont.com/

Heddy Zola, Child Health Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia. http://

www.cafhri.org.au/

Arie J. Zuckerman, University of London, London, UK.

A

AA. An Hawaiian term introduced into geological nomenclature by

C.E. Dutton in 1883, and signifying the jagged, scoriaceous, blocky and

exceedingly rough surface of some basic lava flows. Prounced ah-ah.

AAAS. The American Association for the Advancement of Science was

founded in 1848 and incorporated in 1874. Its objectives are to further the

work of scientists, to facilitate cooperation among them, to foster scientific

freedom and responsibility, to improve the effectiveness of science in

promoting human welfare, to advance education in science, and to increase

public understanding and appreciation for the importance and promise of

the methods of science in human progress. The AAAS head quarters is

in Washington, DC. Additional information on the AAAS can be found at

http://www.aaas.org/ and http://www.sciencemag.org/.

AAC (ADVANCED AUDIO CODING). See Data Compression.

AARDVARK (Mammalia, Tubulidentata). African animals of peculiar

form and ancient lineage, including an Ethiopian and a South African

species. All are anteaters, feeding exclusively on ants and termites,

nocturnal in habit, with acute hearing. The southern species has been called

the ant bear. The aardvark is the only living representative of its order.

The animal’s spine, curved from neck to tail in a near-half circle, gives it

a truly prehistoric appearance.

The aardvark is solitary. In daytime it sleeps curled up like a dog in

one of its burrows, often beneath a termite hill. The animal moves almost

entirely at night, when it seeks termite hills and destroys them to reach the

interior chambers and tunnels alive with insects, which it rapidly licks up in

lumps. Although usually silent, the animal can grunt like a hippopotamus.

Life span is at least 10 years. In captivity, aardvarks become accustomed

to keepers, but do not show great intelligence. See Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. The habitus or body definitely purveys a pig-like appearance.

AARDWOLF (

Información bibliográfica