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and others, shall have been given to the public, and Mr. Ainsworth and his colleagues shall have completed the expedition they have undertaken under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, the secrets of some of the most interesting districts in Upper Mesopotamia and Kurdistan, especially those of Sinjar, Hatteras, and Mount Jewar, will, it is expected, be laid fully open to the European world. In the mean time, as every source of information, both private and public, has been made use of in combination with the author's personal knowledge of the country, it is hoped that the geographical account which has been given will be found at once entirely accurate, and as particular, too, as the limits of such a work will permit. In this description may be included the characteristic details of manners and customs of the Arab and Kurdish tribes, which, derived chiefly from actual observation, have been confirmed by various persons, whose opinions, from their opportunities of judging, are entitled to the highest credit.

The sketch of the natural history of these provinces has likewise been drawn up with an anxious desire to afford a summary of whatever valuable information has been collected upon the subject.

Of the decorations of this volume, the author has only to observe, that they are all engraved from drawings made by himself upon the spot, and that he can vouch at least for their accuracy, nothing having been added to the original sketch except the particular effect which was deemed appropriate to the subject.

The utmost care has been bestowed on the construction of the map, which will be found to contain all the additions made by recent travellers to our geographical knowledge of the interesting country which occupies the basin of the Tigris and Euphrates.

May, 1841.


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Subsequent History of Mesopotamia and Assyria.

Rennell's Opinion of Xenophon's Retreat.-Advance of Cyrus.-Battle

of Cunaxa, and Death of Cyrus.-Truce between the Greek Generals

and the King. The former advance to the Tigris, and cross it at Sit-

tace. Their March to Opis-And to the Banks of the Zab.-Treach-

ery of Tissaphernes.-Clearchus and other Officers put to Death.-

Farther Attempts at Treachery.-Defeated by the Prudence of the

Grecian Officers.-Xenophon appointed to the Command.-The Greeks

cross the Zab.-Are assailed by Mithradates.-Arrangements for re-

pulsing the Enemy's light Troops.-March to Larissa-To Mespila.-

Struggles during their Progress to the Carduchian Mountains.-Re-

solve to ascend them in Preference to crossing the River.--Are reso-

lutely opposed by the Carduchians.-Abandon their useless Slaves and

Baggage.-Difficulties of the Ascent.-Severe Contests with the Ene-

my-And Losses.-Cross the Centrites, and pass into Armenia.-

Change of Dynasty.-Battle of Arbela.-The Seleucida.-Arsacidæ.

-Appearance of the Romans in Mesopotamia.-Reduced to a Roman

Province.-First Expedition of Crassus.--Embassy from Orodes.-The

Romans driven out by the Parthians.-Second Expedition of Crassus.

-Advice of the King of Armenia.-Treachery of Abgarus-Who con-

ducts them into the Deserts of Charræ.-Infatuation of Crassus.-His

Army attacked by Surenas.-His Son slain.-The Romans forced to re-

treat with great Loss to Charræ.-Again betrayed and surrounded.-

Crassus forced by the Legionaries to negotiate.-Is slain during an In-

terview with Surenas.-The Army destroyed.-Reflections on the

Conduct of Xenophon and Crassus

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