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is now, apparently, restricted to a small area in Western India.

As is the case with the Ungulates, so here, with the exception of the Bears (Ursidae), all the families of Indian Carnivores also range into Ethiopia.

The Insectivores of this Sub-region need not detain us long. A Tree-shrew (Tupaia), an outlying member of a genus very abundantly represented in the Malay countries, is found in Southern India; the other genera, the Hedgehogs (Erinaceus) and the Shrews (Crocidura), are widely spread throughout the Old World.

Among the Bats of this Sub-region we find that not only there are no peculiar genera, but that even the species in nearly all cases have an extended range beyond its limits. Out of about forty species, six alone are confined to the Sub-region.

The Slender Loris is found only in Southern India and Ceylon, and is the single representative of the Lemurs in this Sub-region. It is a strange-looking creature, with long spidery arms and no tail. Like most of its race, it is arboreal and nocturnal in its habits.

Indian monkeys all belong to the two large genera, Macacus and Semnopithecus, both of which are characteristic of the Oriental Region, although two or three species of them have strayed over the borders into the Palearctic Region.

The following table shows, in a succinct manner, the origin and distribution of the mammals of this Sub-region. The species in the first line, reckoned as "Endemic," are confined to the Sub-region; those called "Oriental” do not occur beyond the boundaries of that Region; those catalogued as "Palearctic" are common to that Region

and to the Indian Sub-region; the "Ethiopian," in the same way, are found alike in the Ethiopian Region and the Indian Sub-region. The "Palæogean" genera are those which are found in the Indian Sub-region and in more than one of the other three Regions of the Old World. Finally, the "Cosmopolitan" genera are those found in the New World as well as in the Old.

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From this table it will be seen that the relations of the Indian Sub-region are about equally divided between the Palearctic and Ethiopian Regions; the largest number of genera are registered as "Palæogean," and most of these are common to the three Regions of the Old World. The relations of this Sub-region to the Australian Region are very slight; with the exception of Canis, it is only among the Bats that we find any common genera.


Owing to our imperfect knowledge of the fauna of the central part of China and of Tibet, it is impossible at present to draw up a complete list of the mammalian

genera inhabiting this Sub-region, and it is consequently out of the question to lay down anything but a very uncertain boundary between this Sub-region and the neighbouring Palearctic Region. It is probable, however, that even when Western China and Tibet have been thoroughly explored, it will still be difficult to trace an absolute frontier between the Palearctic and Oriental Regions. As we already know, Northern China and Japan contain a considerable number of purely Oriental species. Even the Tiger, usually associated with tropical jungles, ranges through China into the valley of the Amoor and the island of Saghalien, where a most severe Arctic winter is met with. In the same way, two species of a typically Oriental genus of Monkeys are found in North-East Asia-one (Macacus speciosus) in Nipon, the largest of the Japanese group of islands; the other (Macacus tcheliensis) in the mountains north of Pekin.

On the other hand, a good many purely Palæarctic forms extend into Southern China. This is more especially the case among the birds, which have hitherto received a preponderating share of the attention of the naturalists and collectors in the Chinese Empire.

Passing over the Edentates, represented, as in the Indian Sub-region, by two species of Pangolin (Manis), we come to the Ungulates of the Burmo-Chinese Sub-region. Here we remark the disappearance of the Antelopes, and the great development of the Deer-family (Cervida), of which no less than fifteen species are found in this Subregion. One of these (Elaphodus) is a curious little Deer with very small simple antlers and large canine teeth; it was first described by Milne-Edwards from Western Tibet, and subsequently a second species of the same genus was

discovered in Southern China. Another small Deer, for which a separate genus (Hydropotes) has been rightly formed, has no trace of antlers at all, and in other respects differs much from the remaining members of the family. This form is entirely confined to Southern China. A third peculiar genus, belonging to the Bovida, is the Takin (Budorcas). This ox-like Antelope is also found in Western Tibet, but extends its range southwards to the Mishmi country in the north of Assam. The Takin is one of the very few of the larger ruminants that has never been met with or shot by European sportsmen, and our knowledge of it is entirely derived from the natives.

The Burmo-Chinese, like the Malayan Sub-region, is the most frequented haunt of the Squirrel family (Sciuridæ). No less than thirty-two species, referable to the genera Sciurus (the true Squirrel) and to Pteromys and Sciuropterus, the Flying Squirrels, are found here alone. The only Rodent supposed to be truly endemic is Hapalomys, a long-tailed Rat found in Burma.

The Burmo-Chinese Carnivores do not call for any special remark; one genus alone (Helictis) is strictly endemic. It contains three or four species of small badger-like animals with arboreal habits.

Among the insectivores of this Sub-region only one genus is endemic. This is Soriculus, containing some small shrew-like mammals found only in Sikkim and Assam. Several species of Mole (Talpa), as also Anurosorex, and Chimarrhogale, belonging to the Shrew family (Soricida), extend from the Palæarctic Region into this Sub-region, but no farther.

The Bats of Burmo-China need not detain us long; most of the genera are widely spread, and a very large

number of them extend across Wallace's line into the Austro-Malayan islands—a distribution shared by hardly any other of the Oriental genera of mammals.

One of the Slow Lemurs, Nycticebus, is common to this and the Malayan Sub-region; it bears a certain resemblance to the Indian genus Loris, but is distinguished by its somewhat stouter aspect and its still more sluggish habits.

Among the Monkeys of this Sub-region, in addition to the two genera Macacus and Semnopithecus, inhabiting also the Indian Sub-region, a genus of the anthropoid Apes occurs. This is Hylobates, members of which are commonly known as Gibbons; they are slender animals, with very long limbs and no tail, and are entirely restricted to the forest districts, being exclusively arboreal in their mode of life.

The following summary of the Burmo-Chinese genera of mammals has been drawn up exactly in the same way as the previous list, except that under an additional heading, "Australian," are placed two genera common to the Oriental and Australian Sub-regions:

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