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whole of Siberia north of the great mountain ranges together with the island of Saghalien, and perhaps, too, the Japanese island of Yezo. In this Sub-region must also be included Asia Minor, the Caucasus, and the Elburz mountains.

2. The Eremian Sub-region, including the north of Africa, Northern Arabia, the greater part of Persia and Afghanistan, and the great desert of Central Asia, extending from the steppes of Southern Russia as far as Manchuria.

3. The Chinese Sub-region, embracing the greater part of China proper, Southern Manchuria, and Japan, and extending westward to Western Tibet and the top of the southern slopes of the Himalayas.

The boundaries of these Sub-regions will be best understood by referring to the accompanying map (Plate VII., p. 196), in which they are approximately delineated; but it must be always understood that it is in most cases quite impossible to draw a hard and fast line as the boundary between two adjacent Regions on land.

SECTION IV.—THE EUROPASIAN SUB-REGION

The Europasian Sub-region contains the great temperate forest-area of the Northern Hemisphere. In its western part, at any rate, this has been considerably modified by the hand of man, but in primaval times the forests probably extended almost without break from the Bay of Biscay to Kamtchatka.

The Europasian fauna is not very rich; it comprises fifty-seven genera of Mammals, of which four only are restricted to its boundaries. The endemic forms among the Ungulata are Capreolus, containing the Roe-deer, a single species of which is found throughout the whole extent of the Region; and Rupicapra, the Chamois, found only in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, and Caucasus. The single endemic rodent is the familiar Dormouse (Muscardinus), which is apparently confined to Europe. On the other hand, the little Water-shrew (Crossopus) extends from England to the Altai mountains.

There is a considerable number of genera common to the Europasian Sub-region and the Nearctic Region. With the exception, however, of two, the Elk and the Reindeer, these have mostly spread also into the other Palearctic Sub-regions. On the whole the fauna of this Sub-region has little individuality, and calls for very few remarks as to its distinctness.

Appended is a list of the genera, drawn up in the same manner as in the previous tables.

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SECTION V.THE EREMIAN SUB-REGION

The Eremian or Desert Sub-region of the Palæarctic Region contains representatives of a larger number of genera than the Europasian, and a higher percentage of endemic forms, although even here we do not find so much individual character as in some of the Sub-regions previously treated of. A considerable number of the genera are common to this and the Ethiopian Region, which is, perhaps, not to be wondered at, considering the long land boundary which runs between them.

Among the Ungulates only one genus is confined to this Region—the Camel (Camelus), which is now found wild only in certain desert tracts of Central Asia, being elsewhere known only in a domesticated condition. But remains of animals of this genus have been found in comparatively recent beds both in India and Algeria. Except for this, other indications seem to point to the fact that the Camels must have had their origin in the New World, where they are now represented only by the Lamas. But remains of several allied genera of Camelidæ have been met with in the Tertiary beds of North America, where, however, they have been long extinct. Bubalis, which contains the Antelopes usually known as “Hartebeests,” and Hyrax (the Tree-conies) are common to this Sub-region and the Ethiopian Region. Among the Rodents no less than five genera are confined to the Sub-region, the most remarkable of these being, perhaps, the Jerboas, or Kangaroo-rats, as they are called, from having their hind legs elongated for jumping purposes. The four known genera of Jerboas, which contain a large number of species, are not found

outside the limits of this Sub-region. A fifth endemic genus of rodents is Ellobius, which is thoroughly adapted to a subterranean life, having very short limbs and tail, and rudimentary external ears. The only two known species of this genus are restricted to the Eremian Sub-region.

The Eremian Carnivora, as is usually the case with this group, are mostly widespread, and this is also the case with the Bats. The Insectivora are not very numerous, but one genus is peculiar to the Sub-region; this is Diplomesodon, a little shrew-like animal of terrestrial habits found in the Kirghiz steppes. Another genus, Macroscelides (the Elephant-shrew), though typically Ethiopian, has one species that extends into this Sub-region in Algeria and Tunis.

The Monkeys are represented in the Eremian Subregion by one species only, the well-known Barbary Ape, (Macacus inuus), which is found in Algeria and Morocco.

The genera that occur in the Eremian Sub-region are shown in the following table, which may be compared with the corresponding table appended to the Europasian Subregion :

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SECTION VI.-THE CHINESE SUB-REGION

The Chinese Sub-region bears the same relation to the Oriental Region as the Desert Sub-region does to the Ethiopian Region, and the number of genera of Mammals that are common to it and the Oriental Region is considerable.

On the whole, too, this is the most specialized of all the Palæarctic Sub-regions; six genera out of a total number of sixty being endemic, and several others only just crossing its borders. This Sub-region contains within its limits the highest tableland on the face of the globe, that of Tibet, the zoology of which is not so well known as it should be, owing to the persistent exclusion of European travellers from its limits.

What knowledge we have of the Tibetan fauna relates chiefly to the larger animals, and among these are several very interesting and peculiar forms. It is, therefore, probable that when more about this Region is known, many novelties will be discovered among the smaller animals as well.

The Ungulates of the Chinese Sub-region show no genera which are absolutely confined to it, but a curious little deer with short straight antlers (Elaphodus) is highly characteristic of it, although it extends into the outskirts of the Oriental Region. Another peculiar genus is the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops), well known to Indian sportsmen, which is found only at great heights on the Tibetan plateau. A third genus, also of great interest, is the Takin (Budorcas), a large bovine animal with horns somewhat resembling those of the

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