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ferocity of the Gorilla are based on fact seems to be still. quite doubtful. The few specimens of this animal that have reached Europe alive have not given much support to the stories told about it.

The genus Anthropopithecus, therefore, with its two, or perhaps three, species, may be regarded as one of the most characteristic forms of the mammal-life of the Ethiopian Region to which it is absolutely confined.

Passing on to the next genus of Anthropoid Apes, we find that the Orangs (Simia) are in like manner one of the most characteristic mammal-forms of the Indian Region, to which they exclusively belong. As in the case of the Chimpanzee, there has been the same difference of opinion among naturalists as to whether there is only one or several species of Orangs. The Orang is found only in the dense forests of Borneo and Sumatra. The forms met with in these islands respectively have been treated as specifically distinct, and the Bornean form has also been divided into several species. But, on the whole, the prevalent opinion of modern writers is that there is only one variable species of Orang, which we call by Linnæus' name Simia satyrus. In Sumatra this Ape is mainly found in the lowlands of the eastern coasts of the island, in the districts of Palembang and Jambe. In Borneo it is more numerous, and has a wider range, extending all over the low forest-covered swamps between the coasts and the mountains of the interior, but in some places ascending to a considerable height in the lower hills.

The third and only remaining genus of Anthropoid Apes contains the Gibbons, or Long-armed Apes (Hylobates), which are likewise restricted to the Oriental Region, but have a much wider distribution than the Orang. The

Gibbons vary much in the colour of their fur, and numerous doubtful species have been based upon such differences. The most recent authorities are not inclined to allow more than seven or eight well-marked species of Gibbons. Of them the most distinct is the Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, which has the second and third toes of the feet joined together by a thin web of skin, and has other slight peculiarities, which have induced some naturalists to place it in another genus. But this seems to be quite unnecessary. The remaining typical Gibbons are thinly distributed over all the three great islands of the Malay Archipelago, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, extending into the Sulu group between Borneo and the Philippines. On the continent they range high up the Malay Peninsula, even so far north as Assam and Bhootan, where they are represented by the Hoolock (H. hoolock). They are also found in Siam, Cambodia, and Annam, and one species (H. hainanus), has been discovered in the Chinese island of Hainan.

Thus of the three generally recognized genera of Simiidæ, or Anthropoid Apes, one is of the Ethiopian, the two others of the Oriental Region.

We now come to the second family of Catarrhine Monkeys, the Cercopithecida, or what are usually called the Old World Monkeys. Of these, about one hundred and twenty species are known, divisible into about nine wellmarked genera. Most of these monkeys, as we shall show, belong to the Oriental and Ethiopian Regions, but the genera which inhabit these Regions respectively are quite distinct. Two genera alone, Macacus and Semnopithecus, have representatives within the limits of the Palearctic Region.

The Langurs (Semnopithecus) of the Oriental Region,

which we will take first of the group, remarkable for their slender body and the excessive length of their tails, are distributed over Southern Asia and the adjoining islands of the Malay Archipelago, and are numerous in species, as many as twenty-nine or thirty being of probable validity. Dr. Blanford describes as many as fourteen of them in his "Fauna of British India," as met with within the limits of India, Ceylon, and Burma. Of these, one, S. schistaceus, has mounted high into the Himalayas, where it ascends to an elevation of 10,000 feet and is never met with below 5000 feet. But this species is undoubtedly derived from the plains of India, being a very close ally of S. entellus, which has a wide distribution over the northern provinces. Another well-marked species of this genus is found high up in Eastern Tibet and North-western China, where it inhabits the mountain forests and has been named S. roxellanæ from its conspicuous turned-up nose. Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, have each of them distinct species of this wide-spread genus.

Closely allied to the Langurs (Semnopithecus) is the very curious Long-nosed or Proboscis-monkey of Borneo, which seems to be confined to the lowlands near the mouths of the rivers in Sarawak and the adjoining districts of that island. It is the sole representative of the genus Nasalis.

Passing back to the Ethiopian Region, we find in the place of Semnopithecus and Nasalis the genus Colobus, remarkable for the absence of a thumb on its hand, but in other respects closely allied to its Asiatic brethren. About ten species of Colobus are generally recognized by naturalists. They are distributed all over the forests of tropical Africa, being, perhaps, most abundant on the west


coast. One of them, Kirk's Colobus (C. kirki) so far as has yet been ascertained, has been only met with in the island of Zanzibar, where, however, it is said to be now nearly extinct. Another well-marked species, the Guereza (C. guereza), is peculiar for its long-haired flanks and tail. It was originally discovered in Abyssinia, but is represented by closely allied forms in British East Africa and on the Niger and Upper Congo.

The Guenons, or long-tailed Monkeys of the genus Cercopithecus, which we now come to, are likewise entirely confined to the Ethiopian Region, and being exclusively inhabitants of forests, are naturally most numerous in the wooded districts of the west coast and in the great wooded valley of the Congo. They are very numerous in species, as many as forty different kinds having been discriminated, but are mostly confined to small specific areas, not more than one or two species as a rule occurring in the same district. Allied to the Guenons are the Mangabeys (Cercocebus) with about six known species, which has nearly the same area of distribution.

Both Guenons and Mangabeys do well in captivity, and are always well represented in the Zoological Society's monkey-house, where they have, in some cases, bred young ones. As many as twenty-four different species of Cercopithecus will be found registered in the Zoological Society's Catalogues, and amongst them are some of the most beautiful and brightly coloured of the Quadrumana, such as the Diana Monkey (C. diana) and Brazza's Monkey (C. brazza).

In the Oriental Region the corresponding form of monkey is the Macaque (Macacus), about fifteen species of which are distributed over Southern Asia and its islands

down to Wallace's Line. Some of these have a wide range, such as the Pig-tailed Macaque (M. nemestrinus) and the Crab-eating Macaque (M. cynomolgus), which occur in most of the large islands of the Indian Archipelago, as well as in the Malay Peninsula, but others are very limited in their specific areas. The Macaques ascend high in the Himalayas, M. rhesus or some of its allied forms going up to at least 10,000 feet above the sea-level. Moreover, two other nearly allied species of this genus are found to the north of the Himalayas, far beyond the limits of the Oriental Region. These are the Hairy-eared Macaque (M. lasiotis) of Szechuen, and the Tcheli Monkey (M. tcheliensis) of Manchuria. The latter inhabits the mountains of Yung-Ling, north of Pekin, in latitude 41° North, where the thermometer frequently descends to 10° below zero. An example of this rare monkey, which has been living in the Zoological Society's menagerie since June 1886, is always kept in a cage in the open air. A third species of Macaque (M. speciosus) is found in Japan, where it is the sole representative of the order Quadrumana. It is stated to be found all over the island of Hondo or Nippon up to 41° N. lat., and if this be the case, has a higher range north than any other monkey now existing, except perhaps the Tcheli Monkey just spoken of.

In the western part of the Palearctic Region, a single species of Macaque is also found. This is the Barbary Ape (M. inuus), which frequents in the scrubby gorges of the mountains of Morocco and Algeria, and is also a wellknown inhabitant of the Rock of Gibraltar. But whether it is an aboriginal denizen of "The Rock" or has been introduced by man is somewhat doubtful. At the present time,

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