Theory of Religion
Zone Books, 1989 - 126 páginas
Theory of Religion brings to philosophy what Georges Bataille's earlier book The Accursed Share brought to anthropology and history, namely, an analysis based on notions of excess and expenditure. No other work of Bataille's, and perhaps no other work anywhere since Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, has managed to draw so incisively the links between man's religious and economic activities.
"Religion," according to Bataille, "is the search for a lost intimacy." In a brilliant and tightly reasoned argument, he proceeds to develop a "general economy" of man's relation to this intimacy: from the seamless immanence of animality to the shattered world of objects and the partial, ritual recovery of the intimate order through the violence of the sacrifice. Bataille then reflects on the archaic festival, in which he sees not only the glorious affirmation of life through destructive consumption but also the seeds of another, more ominous order -- war.
Bataille then traces the rise of the modern military order, in which production ceases to be oriented toward the destruction of a surplus and violence is no longer deployed inwardly but is turned to the outside. In these twin developments one can see the origins of modern capitalism.
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The real order must annul – neutralize – that intimate life and replace it with the
thing that the individual is in the society of labor . But it cannot prevent life's
disappearance in death from revealing the invisible brilliance of life that is not a
At the same time it is posited as the result of operations analogous to those of the
real order and pursued in that order . In actual fact the intimate order is
subordinated to the real world only in a superficial way . Under the sovereignty of
It thus introduced into the whole domain of knowledge the sovereign decisions
that do not express the intimate order itself but the compromises that enable it to
remain intimate while submitting to the principles of the real order . It was only