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exist still in a wild state only in certain districts of Central Asia, while the Arabian, or One-humped camel, has never yet been met with in a truly wild condition, so that the genus Camelus may be considered as truly Palæarctic.

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Two other endemic genera belonging to the Deer-family (Cervidx) are Moschus, the Musk-deer, a small hornless deer found only in the higher mountain ranges of Central Asia (Fig. 36); and Capreolus, the Roe-deer, fairly well spread over the whole extent of the Region,

Among the Bovide, Saiga, an Antelope found on the steppes of Russia and Western Asia, Pantholops, another

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Antelope of the Central-Asiatic mountains, and Rupicapra, the Chamois of the European mountain ranges (Fig. 37) are confined to this Region. The important genera of Sheep (Ovis) and Goat (Capra) must be considered as especially characteristic of this Region, although stragglers of these forms are found in the confines of the Nearctic and Oriental Regions. They are all mountain animals, one of the best marked forms being the Barbary Sheep

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(Ovis tragelaphus) of Northern Africa (Fig. 38). Of the Rodents, the two most characteristic Palæarctic families are the Dormice (Myoxide) and the Jerboas (Dipodidæ). Of the former family two genera, and of the latter four, are all confined to this Region. There are also two very peculiar genera of Carnivores met with in this Region. One of these (Æluropus) is a curious bear-like creature of a white colour, with the ears, shoulders, limbs, and rings round the eyes black, which has only hitherto been obtained in the high mountains of Eastern Tibet (see

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Fig. 39). The other genus, Ælurus, sometimes called the Panda, is also found in the same district, but extends southwards into Yunnan. Remains of a closely allied species of this genus have lately been found in the Pliocene deposits of England. This animal is usually placed in the otherwise strictly New World family Procyonidæ, which embraces the Raccoons and their allies. The only other carnivorous genus not represented beyond the limits of the Palæarctic Region is Meles, containing the familiar European Badger and other species.

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The Insectivora are found in considerable numbers in this Region, three genera of Shrews and three of Moles being restricted to it. Among these are the little Watershrew (Crossopus) found in England, and thence throughout the Palæarctic Region as far as the Altai mountains. Crossopus (Fig. 40) is distinguished by having fringes of

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