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Control-Flight of Gelves—Triumphant Entry of the Archbishop-
Reactionary Measures by the Audiencia–The Viceroy under Re-
straint-His Vain Negotiations for Return to Power-Gathering
Evidence-Measures by the King-Cerralvo Sent as Viceroy-Nomi-
nal Restoration of Gelves and Triumphant Entry- Proceedings
against the Rioters-Fate of Serna and Gelves—Significance of the
Defence Measures — The Dutch at Acapulco-Corsair Raids along the
Coast of Yucatan - The Barlovento Squadron-Royal Loans and Ex-
tortions-Inundation of Mexico-Proposed Removal of the Capital -
Relief Measures and Drainage Projects—The Huehuetoca Tunnel-
San Felipe the Protomartyr of Mexico—His Irregular Life and Beat-
ification-The Hermit Lopez-Viceroy Cadereita—The Prelate Zú-
ñiga—The First Creole Archbishop....
ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROYS ESCALONA, PALAFOX, AND SALVATIERRA,
Vierroy Escalona's Arrival-The Bishop and Visitador Palafox-Quarrels
about Doctrinas-A Covetous Ruler-Fruitless Complaints--Start-
ling News from Portugal --Escalona's Sympathies--An Insolent Cap-
tain-Viceroy versus Bishop-Palafox Vade Archbishop and Governor
of New Spain-Secret Preparations—The Stroke against Escalona-
His Vindication in Spain-Palafox an Able Viceroy-Iconoclasm-
Episcopal Labors at Puebla-Viceroy Salvatierra Arrives—California
JESUIT LABORS AND STRIFES.
The Field of Jesuit Labors—The First Disputes with the Church of
Puebla—Attitude of Palafox-Rclations between the Bishop and the
Jesuits--Open Hostility-Appointment of Judges—Palafox Sen.
tenced-He Retaliates-IIis Flight from Puebla—The Victorious So-
ciety—The Bishop Returns—General Reprimands from Spain-The
Jesuits Defeated in Rome-Revival and Conclusion of the Quar-
rel-Life of Palafox in Spain--His Death-Disputes with the Society
about Tithes—The Jesuits at the Close of the Century ....
VICEROYS TORRES, ALVA, AND ALBURQUERQUE.
Bishop Torres Governor of New Spain--His Brief Rule-Epidemic-Gov.
ernment of the Audiencia–Viceroy Alva Arrives-Iis Quiet Rule-
Alburquerque Appointed Viceroy--He Governs with Prudence-And
Checks Abuses-Loss of Jamaica and the Influence thereof on New
Spain-Yucatan Infested by Pirates-Attempt to Assassinate Albur-
querque–The Swift Punishment that Followed-Public Rejoicings
Viceroy and Archbishop Recalled— Their Departure and Subsequent
An Uneventful Period-Good Rulers-Marshal Cárlos de Luna y Arre.
llano-The Government of the Towns-The Monarch as a Mendi-
cant-Governor Juan de Vergas-His Maleadministration - The Li-
centiate Carvajal Takes his Residencia-Indian Revolts- The Suc-
cession of Rulers-Campeche Fortified-Soberanis and Martin de
Ursúa - More Dissensions - Excommunication of Soberanis-Con-
cerning the Conquest of the Itzas–Conduct of Ursua Justified, and
his Subsequent Promotion-IIis Qualities as a Soldier the Cause of
FIVE MORE VICEROYS.
Count de Baños, the Twenty-third Viceroy-A New Order of Things-
Indian Revolt at Tehuantepec-An Arbitrary Ruler-Character
of the Man-He is Replaced by Archbishop Osorio—The Prelate's
Brief but Beneficent Government-A Native of Mexico Made Arch-
bishop-Arrival of Marquis Mancera–His Efficient Rule---Cali-
fornia Explorations—The Cathedral of Mexico-Its Dedication -
Mancera's Wise Policy-Eruption of Popocata petl and Other Calam-
ities–Veraguas, Descendant of Columbus, as Viceroy–His Cn.
timely Death-Archbishop Ribera Succeeds---His Character and
Good Government-He Declines New Honors-His Retirement to
Spain, and Death.....
THE SACK OF VERA CRTZ, AND OTHER PIRATICAL RAIDS.
The Corsairs in Central America and New Spain-Laguna Appointed Vice-
roy-Van Horn the Sea Rover-The Pirates Resolve to Attack Vera
Cruz-The Corsair Lorencillo-A Clever Stratagem-Vera Cruz
Surprised by Buccaneers-The Inhabitants Imprisoned in the
Churches—And Kept for Three Days without Food or Water-The
Captives Taken to the Island of Sacrificios-Departure of the Cor-
sairs-Division of the Booty-News of the Raid Received in Mexico-
Further Operations of the Freebooters—Dampier and Others in the
South Sea-End of Laguna's Administration...
THE PROVINCE OF VERA CRUZ.
Extent of the City of Vera Cruz-Entrepôt of Commerce-Character of
the Population-Prosperity of the People-Its Inhabitants-Its
Trade-Scarcity of Water—The Black-vomit—The Port of Vera
Cruz-The Fortress of San Juan de Ulúa-Its Garrison-The Works
Cost Nearly Forty Millions of Pesos—Cessation of Buccaneering
Raids—The Towns of Córdoba, Jalapa, and Orizaba....
FLOOD, FAMINE, AND ECLIPSE.
Laguna's Administration-His Successor, the Conde de Galve—The Pirates
Driven from the South Sea-War with France-Pirates in the North
Sea-The Armada de Barlovento--Union of Spanish and English
against the French-Drought and Flood— Loss of Crops-Excesses
of the Soldiery-Death of María Luisa–The Drainage System-Por-
tentous Events—The Bakers Refuse to Bake-Efforts of the Viceroy. 221
CORN RIOT IN
Increased Murmurs—Rumored Grain Speculations of the Viceroy-An
Imprudent Preacher-The Léperos—Pulque Shops--Inefficient Forces
at Command-Awaiting Opportunity--Affair at the Granary--The
Viceroy Threatened-Outbreak-Death to the Officials !—The Palace
Set on Fire–The Plaza Stalls also Fired—Robbery and Murder-
Executions—Revolt at Tlascala-Sale of Pulque Prohibited--Re-
building of the Palace-Affairs in New Mexico.....
VICEROYS MONTAÑEZ AND MONTEZUMA.
Jore Insurrections in the Capital—The Baratillo Suppressed – Narrow
Escape of the Treasure Fleet-Another Fainine-Montezuma Suc-
ceeds Montañez-Fair at Acapulco-Obsequies on the Death of
Cárlos II.-Rejoicings at the Accession of Felipe V.-Montezuma
Suspected of Disloyalty-A Worthy Ruler Deposed-Jesuit Expedi-
tions to Lower California...
NEW SPAIN AT THE OPENING OF THE EIGHTEENTII CENTURY.
Montañez Viceroy for a Second Term–His Formal Entry into the Capi.
tal-Loss of Treasure Ships—The Hermandad and Acordada-Mon.
talez Appointed Archbishop of Mexico-Alburquerque's Reign-
His Character Illustrated-Captain Dampier Once More in the
South Sea-A Privateering Expedition Fitted Out by Bristol Mer-
chants-A Motley Crowd on Board the Ships—Their Voyage round
the World—Enormous Profits of the Enterprise-Linares' Adminis-
tration-Earthquake, Famine, and Flood-Contraband Trading-
Valero's Rule-Attempted Assassination--Corsairs in Yucatan. .... 288
Boundaries of the Territory-Its Governors—The Audiencia of Guadala-
jara-Its Jurisdiction and Powers-Local Government–Corregimien.
tos and Alcaldias Mayores-Cities, Towns, Villages, and Mining
Districts—The Capital—A City of Office-holders—Treasury Depart-
ment-Industrial Progress-Mines-Quicksilver Monopoly and its
Effects-Agriculture and Stock-raising-Labor, Commerce, and Ship-
building-Population and Local Statistics..
THE CONQUEST OF NAYARIT.
The Last Refuge of Idolatry in Nueva Galicia-Geography of Nayarit-
Characteristics of the Natives—Partial Success of Arisbaba in 1618-
Trouble at Acaponeta-Massacre of Bracamonte and his Party in
1701–Revolt at Colotlan—The Barefoot Friars--Mendiola's Expedi-
tion and the First Jesuit Attempt–The Tonati Visits Mexico-His
Treaty and his Flight-Preparations and Obstacles at Zacatecas-
Camp at Peyotlan-Flores in Command-Assault on the Mesa - The
Nayarits Subdued and Conquest Achieved--Progress of the Mis-
PROGRESS IN NUEVO LEON, AND CONQUEST OF SIERRA GORDA
Governors Agustin de Zavala, Juan Ruiz, Martin de Zavala-Congre-
gas--Uprising of Natives—And Final Subjection-Political Divis-
ion--Secularization of Missions—And Consequent General Insurrec-
tion-Governor Barbadillo-His Prudent Measures-More Difficul-
ties—Population of Province—Sierra Gorda–Death of Zaraza--
Governor José de Escandon-His Pacification and Conquest of Sierra
Gorda--Condition of Tamaulipas—Escandon is Appointed Gover-
nor-He Founds Nuevo Santander-Numerous Towns and Missions
are Founded-Statistics for 1757-General Progress of the Colonies. 333
THIRTY-SEVENTH TO FORTY-THIRD VICEROYS.
Bi-centennial of European Occupation-Viceroy Casafuerte-He Encour-
ages Public Improvements, Peaceful Progress-Death of the Vice-
roy-His Successor Archbishop Vizarron-Negro Insurrection at
Córdoba-Its Suppression by the Military-Ravages of Epidemic-
Viceroy Conquista's Rule--Fuenclara Arrives -- Commodore An-
son--IIe Captures the 'Covadonga'-Spanish Jealousy-Persecution
of Boturini-Loss of Valuable Manuscripts-Administration of Re.
villa Gigedo-His Trafficking Propensities–Famine, Discase, and
Earthquakes-Fuenclara Resigns-Viceroy Amarillas--His Poverty
and Death—The Audiencia Rules-Short Administration of Viceroy
VICEROYS FORTY-FOUR TO FORTY-SIX.
Viceroy Marqués de Cruíllas–King Carlos III. Proclaimed-War with
Great Britain-Extensive and Costly Preparations against Possible
Attacks—Visitador-general José de Galvez–His Eminent Services
in Mexico and Spain-Cruillas' Relief and Harsh Treatment-Vice-
roy Marqués de Croix-He Supports Galvez–His Rule Approved -
Promotion, Recall, and Future Career-Unjust Strictures--Viceroy
Frey Antonio Maria Bucarelli--General Measures of his Long Rule-
His Death—Temporary Rule of the Audiencia-Fourth Ecclesiasti-
cal Council-Its Acts-Archbishop Francisco Antonio Lorenzana-
His Course in Mexico and Spain-He is Made a Cardinal-Future
Career and Death.