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Control-Flight of Gelves-Triumphant Entry of the Archbishop-
Reactionary Measures by the Audiencia-The Viceroy under Re-
straint-His Vain Negotiations for Return to Power-Gathering
Evidence-Measures by the King-Cerralvo Sent as Viceroy-Nomi-
nal Restoration of Gelves and Triumphant Entry-Proceedings
against the Rioters-Fate of Serna and Gelves-Significance of the
KING AND COLONY.
Defence Measures-The Dutch at Acapulco-Corsair Reids along the
Coast of Yucatan-The Barlovento Squadron-Royal Loans and Ex-
tortions-Inundation of Mexico-Proposed Removal of the Capital—
Relief Measures and Drainage Projects-The Huehuetoca Tunnel-
San Felipe the Protomartyr of Mexico-His Irregular Life and Beat-
ification-The Hermit Lopez-Viceroy Cadereita-The Prelate Zú-
ñiga-The First Creole Archbishop....
ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROYS ESCALONA, PALAFOX, AND SALVATIERRA.
Viceroy Escalona's Arrival—The Bishop and Visitador Palafox-Quarrels
about Doctrinas-A Covetous Ruler-Fruitless Complaints-Start-
ling News from Portugal-Escalona's Sympathies--An Insolent Cap-
tain-Viceroy versus Bishop-Palafox Made Archbishop and Governor
of New Spain-Secret Preparations-The Stroke against Escalona—
His Vindication in Spain-Palafox an Able Viceroy-Iconoclasm-
Episcopal Labors at Puebla-Viceroy Salvatierra Arrives-California
JESUIT LABORS AND STRIFES.
The Field of Jesuit Labors-The First Disputes with the Church of
Puebla-Attitude of Palafox-Relations between the Bishop and the
Jesuits--Open Hostility-Appointment of Judges-Palafox Sen-
tenced-He Retaliates-His Flight from Puebla-The Victorious So-
ciety-The Bishop Returns-General Reprimands from Spain-The
Jesuits Defeated in Rome-Revival and Conclusion of the Quar-
rel-Life of Palafox in Spain-His Death-Disputes with the Society
about Tithes-The Jesuits at the Close of the Century.....
VICEROYS TORRES, ALVA, AND ALBURQUERQUE.
Bishop Torres Governor of New Spain-His Brief Rule-Epidemic-Gov-
ernment of the Audiencia-Viceroy Alva Arrives-His Quiet Rule-
Alburquerque Appointed Viceroy-He Governs with Prudence-And
Checks Abuses-Loss of Jamaica and the Influence thereof on New
Spain-Yucatan Infested by Pirates--Attempt to Assassinate Albur-
querque-The Swift Punishment that Followed-Public Rejoicings—
Viceroy and Archbishop Recalled-Their Departure and Subsequent
FIVE MORE VICEROYS.
An Uneventful Period-Good Rulers-Marshal Cárlos de Luna y Arre-
llano-The Government of the Towns-The Monarch as a Mendi-
cant-Governor Juan de Vergas-His Maleadministration-The Li-
centiate Carvajal Takes his Residencia-Indian Revolts-The Suc-
cession of Rulers-Campeche Fortified-Soberanis and Martin de
Ursúa-More Dissensions-Excommunication of Soberanis-Con-
cerning the Conquest of the Itzas-Conduct of Ursua Justified, and
his Subsequent Promotion-His Qualities as a Soldier the Cause of
his Preferment...... 152
THE SACK OF VERA CRUZ, AND OTHER PIRATICAL RAIDS.
The Corsairs in Central America and New Spain-Laguna Appointed Vice-
roy-Van Horn the Sea Rover-The Pirates Resolve to Attack Vera
Count de Baños, the Twenty-third Viceroy-A New Order of Things-
Indian Revolt at Tehuantepec-An Arbitrary Ruler-Character
of the Man-He is Replaced by Archbishop Osorio-The Prelate's
Brief but Beneficent Government-A Native of Mexico Made Arch-
bishop-Arrival of Marquis Mancera-His Efficient Rule-Cali-
fornia Explorations-The Cathedral of Mexico-Its Dedication —
Mancera's Wise Policy-Eruption of Popocatapetl and Other Calam-
ities-Veraguas, Descendant of Columbus, as Viceroy-Ilis Un-
timely Death-Archbishop Ribera Succeeds-His Character and
Good Government-He Declines New Honors-His Retirement to
Spain, and Death......
Cruz-The Corsair Lorencillo-A Clever Stratagem-Vera Cruz
Surprised by Buccaneers-The Inhabitants Imprisoned in the
Churches—And Kept for Three Days without Food or Water-The
Captives Taken to the Island of Sacrificios-Departure of the Cor-
sairs-Division of the Booty-News of the Raid Received in Mexico-
Further Operations of the Freebooters—Dampier and Others in the
South Sea-End of Laguna's Administration...
THE PROVINCE OF VERA CRUZ.
Extent of the City of Vera Cruz-Entrepôt of Commerce-Character of
the Population-Prosperity of the People-Its Inhabitants-Its
Trade-Scarcity of Water-The Black-vomit-The Port of Vera
Cruz-The Fortress of San Juan de Ulúa-Its Garrison-The Works
Cost Nearly Forty Millions of Pesos-Cessation of Buccaneering
Raids-The Towns of Córdoba, Jalapa, and Orizaba..........
FLOOD, FAMINE, AND ECLIPSE.
Laguna's Administration-His Successor, the Conde de Galve-The Pirates
Driven from the South Sea-War with France-Pirates in the North
Sea-The Armada de Barlovento-Union of Spanish and English
against the French-Drought and Flood-Loss of Crops-Excesses
of the Soldiery-Death of María Luisa-The Drainage System-Por-
tentous Events-The Bakers Refuse to Bake-Efforts of the Viceroy. 221
CORN RIOT IN THE CAPITAL.
Increased Murmurs-Rumored Grain Speculations of the Viceroy-An
Imprudent Preacher-The Léperos-Pulque Shops-Inefficient Forces
at Command-Awaiting Opportunity-Affair at the Granary-The
Viceroy Threatened-Outbreak-Death to the Officials!-The Palace
Set on Fire-The Plaza Stalls also Fired-Robbery and Murder—
Executions-Revolt at Tlascala-Sale of Pulque Prohibited-Re-
building of the Palace-Affairs in New Mexico.....
VICEROYS MONTAÑEZ AND MONTEZUMA.
More Insurrections in the Capital-The Baratillo Suppressed-Narrow
Escape of the Treasure Fleet-Another Famine-Montezuma Suc-
ceeds Montañez-Fair at Acapulco-Obsequies on the Death of
Carlos II.-Rejoicings at the Accession of Felipe V.-Montezuma
Suspected of Disloyalty-A Worthy Ruler Deposed-Jesuit Expedi-
tions to Lower California....
NEW SPAIN AT THE OPENING OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
Montañez Viceroy for a Second Term-His Formal Entry into the Capi-
tal-Loss of Treasure Ships-The Hermandad and Acordada-Mon-
tañez Appointed Archbishop of Mexico-Alburquerque's Reign—
His Character Illustrated-Captain Dampier Once More in the
South Sea-A Privateering Expedition Fitted Out by Bristol Mer-
chants-A Motley Crowd on Board the Ships-Their Voyage round
the World-Enormous Profits of the Enterprise-Linares' Adminis-
tration-Earthquake, Famine, and Flood-Contraband Trading-
Valero's Rule-Attempted Assassination-Corsairs in Yucatan......... 268
Boundaries of the Territory-Its Governors-The Audiencia of Guadala-
jara-Its Jurisdiction and Powers-Local Government-Corregimien-
tos and Alcaldias Mayores-Cities, Towns, Villages, and Mining
Districts-The Capital-A City of Office-holders-Treasury Depart-
ment-Industrial Progress-Mines-Quicksilver Monopoly and its
Effects-Agriculture and Stock-raising-Labor, Commerce, and Ship-
building-Population and Local Statistics.. . 296
THE CONQUEST OF NAYARIT.
The Last Refuge of Idolatry in Nueva Galicia-Geography of Nayarit--
Characteristics of the Natives-Partial Success of Arisbaba in 1618--
Trouble at Acaponeta-Massacre of Bracamonte and his Party in
1701-Revolt at Colotlan―The Barefoot Friars-Mendiola's Expedi-
tion and the First Jesuit Attempt-The Tonati Visits Mexico-His
Treaty and his Flight-Preparations and Obstacles at Zacatecas-
Camp at Peyotlan-Flores in Command-Assault on the Mesa-The
Nayarits Subdued and Conquest Achieved--Progress of the Mis-
sions.... ... 310
PROGRESS IN NUEVO LEON, AND CONQUEST OF SIERRA GORDA
Governors Agustin de Zavala, Juan Ruiz, Martin de Zavala-Congre-
gas--Uprising of Natives-And Final Subjection-Political Divis-
ion-Secularization of Missions-And Consequent General Insurrec-
tion-Governor Barbadillo-His Prudent Measures-More Difficul-
ties-Population of Province-Sierra Gorda-Death of Zaraza--
Governor José de Escandon-His Pacification and Conquest of Sierra
Gorda--Condition of Tamaulipas-Escandon is Appointed Gover-
nor-He Founds Nuevo Santander-Numerous Towns and Missions
are Founded-Statistics for 1757-General Progress of the Colonies. 333
THIRTY-SEVENTH TO FORTY-THIRD VICEROYS.
Bi-centennial of European Occupation-Viceroy Casafuerte-He Encour
ages Public Improvements-Peaceful Progress-Death of the Vice-
roy-His Successor Archbishop Vizarron-Negro Insurrection at
Córdoba-Its Suppression by the Military-Ravages of Epidemic-
Viceroy Conquista's Rule-Fuenclara Arrives-Commodore An-
son-He Captures the 'Covadonga'-Spanish Jealousy-Persecution
of Boturini-Loss of Valuable Manuscripts-Administration of Re-
villa Gigedo-His Trafficking Propensities-Famine, Disease, and
Earthquakes-Fuenclara Resigns-Viceroy Amarillas-His Poverty
and Death-The Audiencia Rules-Short Administration of Viceroy
VICEROYS FORTY-FOUR TO FORTY-SIX.
Viceroy Marqués de Cruíllas-King Carlos III. Proclaimed--War with
Great Britain-Extensive and Costly Preparations against Possible
Attacks-Visitador-general José de Galvez-His Eminent Services
in Mexico and Spain-Cruíllas' Relief and Harsh Treatment-Vice-
roy Marqués de Croix-He Supports Galvez-His Rule Approved-
Promotion, Recall, and Future Career-Unjust Strictures-Viceroy
Frey Antonio María Bucarelli-General Measures of his Long Rule-
His Death-Temporary Rule of the Audiencia-Fourth Ecclesiasti-
cal Council-Its Acts-Archbishop Francisco Antonio Lorenzana-
His Course in Mexico and Spain-He is Made a Cardinal-Future
Carcer and Death.